military and international relations paper central asia Essay

Pages: 3 (1282 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: International Relations

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] [endnoteRef:4] A loosely connected but historically viable group of local tribes throughout Central Asia also precludes the potential for centralized institutions that could have usurped the power of warlords. The illicit economy holds together loose federations, which perceive outside interventions on the part of even the most well-meaning of international actors who operate under the presumptions of democratic peace theory. [3: Rubin, Barnett R. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan.” World Development Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 1789±1803, 2000, Online available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c36f/7be485354bca2bc1991280c4cb5204a3914f.pdf] [4: Rubin, Barnett R. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan.” World Development Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 1789±1803, 2000, Online available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c36f/7be485354bca2bc1991280c4cb5204a3914f.pdf]

Democratic peace theory has been the primary principle behind the “radical state building and democratization project” in Afghanistan in particular.[endnoteRef:5] Although implemented “in the name of safety and security,” a foreign policy built on democratic peace theory has proved risky and ineffective in Central Asia because it “looks an awful lot like an attempt at biopolitical engineering.”[endnoteRef:6] Without a creative means by which to blend local culture and customs with the ideals of democratic peace, a viable way forward for Afghanistan and the rest of Central Asia remains elusive. [5: Strand, Arne, Kaja Borchgrevink and Kristian Berg Harpviken. “Afghanistan: A Political Economy Analysis.” Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2017, p. x. Online, available at: https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2470515/NUPI_rapport_Afghanistan_Strand_Borchgrevink_BergHarpviken.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y] [6: Nagy, Michael Lewis, “The Democratic Peace Theory and Biopolitics,” Masters Thesis, p. 2, Online, available at: https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/78249/Nagy_ML_T_2017.pdf?sequence=1 2]

CONCLUSION

The most optimistic approach to Central Asia is one that embraces the core tenets of democratic peace theory: that “a successful peace process in Afghanistan can make a significant contribution to the fight against terrorism, as well as the eradication of poverty and inequality in an important region of the world.”[endnoteRef:7] Indeed, peace and prosperity can be considered rational desired outcomes for all but a few stakeholders. The actors who continue to profit from illicit economies, including members of the Taliban, remain the most potent barriers to peace. Recognizing the importance of creating viable economic growth options in the region, it is strongly recommended that state-building proceed only insofar as economic institutions can exist to support the emergence of viable future leaders. [7: Ndulo, Muna B., “Afghanistan: Prospects for Peace and Democratic Governance and the War on Terrorism.” Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 70. 2003, p. 10, Online, available at: https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1069&context=facpub]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dunne, Tim. “Liberalism, International Terrorism, and Democratic Wars.” International Relations. 2000. Online, available at: http://socialsciences.exeter.ac.uk/politics/research/readingroom/Dunne_IR.pdf

Nagy, Michael Lewis. “The Democratic Peace Theory and Biopolitics.” Masters Thesis. Online, available at: https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/78249/Nagy_ML_T_2017.pdf?sequence=1

Ndulo, Muna B. “Afghanistan: Prospects for Peace and Democratic Governance and the War on Terrorism.” Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 70. 2003. Online, available at: https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1069&context=facpub

Rubin, Barnett R. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan.” World Development Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 1789±1803, 2000, Online available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c36f/7be485354bca2bc1991280c4cb5204a3914f.pdf

Strand, Arne, Kaja Borchgrevink and Kristian Berg Harpviken. “Afghanistan: A Political Economy Analysis.” Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2017. Online, available at: https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2470515/NUPI_rapport_Afghanistan_Strand_Borchgrevink_BergHarpviken.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

ENDNOTES

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