Military -- Naval Questions Essay

Pages: 5 (1450 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Military

Military -- Naval Questions

In What Ways does Sea, Naval and Maritime Power Aid in the Prosecution of the Land Battle and Enhance the Ability of States to Project Power Beyond their Shores?

The efficacy of Sea, Naval and Maritime Power for land battles and projection of power is created in multiple roles, often carried out in tandem with land and air forces, to prevent wars and to win wars, as the case may be. Historically in war, navies have been employed in outright naval and amphibious warfare.[footnoteRef:1] in addition, they have transported troops and related materiel such as weapons, ammunition, equipment and supplies.[footnoteRef:2] for example, from January to June of 1944 alone, Allied navies transported nearly 9 million tons of supplies and 800,000 troops across the Atlantic Ocean for D-Day, history's largest amphibious invasion.[footnoteRef:3] Navies opposing these transports have been used to intercept and seize or destroy troops and all related materiel that were being transported.[footnoteRef:4] Navies have also been used to blockade key enemy cities[footnoteRef:5], monitor and report enemy movements[footnoteRef:6] and as mobile bases for air warfare.[footnoteRef:7] Navies were also used to establish and/or replenish key bases on land.[footnoteRef:8] in these multiple roles, sea, naval and maritime power have historically been used to obtain, destroy or preserve valuable resources such as oil from the Middle East[footnoteRef:9] and to effect landings and troop transports that enabled the World War II Allies to capture and control Tunis, bomb Sicily, protect convoys to and from Malta, attack the supply lines of Irwin Rommel and ultimately defeat Germany's Afrika Korps.[footnoteRef:10] Wartime sea, naval and maritime power act as dynamic arms vitally extending the reach of a nation to enhance its own power and its allies' power while crippling its enemies. [1: Paul Kennedy. Engineers of Victory: The Problem Solvers Who Turned the Tide in the Second World War. New York, NY: Random House, 2013, p. 41.] [2: Paul M. Kennedy. The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, 2nd Edition (Paperback). Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2006, p. 314.] [3: Richard Overy. Why the Allies Won (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997), p. 146.] [4: Kennedy, Engineers of Victory, p. 7.] [5: Kennedy, the Rise and Fall, p. 114.] [6: Kennedy, Engineers of Victory, p. 259.] [7: Ibid., p. 14.] [8: Ibid., p. 10.] [9: George Baer. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993, pp. 155-6.] [10: Ibid., p. 166.]

In times of relative peace, sea, naval and maritime power are used to secure a nation against attack, assist its allies in their economic sea trade and military defense, promote stability and peace across waterways, and enhance capabilities of strategically spanning the globe.[footnoteRef:11] These functions allow a nation to prevent war as well as win war, if necessary.[footnoteRef:12] for example, the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard forged a Maritime Strategy in October of 2007.[footnoteRef:13] This Strategy currently provides layered maritime defense of the United States, as well as disaster relief, humanitarian relief and conventional tools of maritime war[footnoteRef:14] by: using "forward deployed, decisive maritime power" to deter and/or contain area conflicts to prevent their globalization[footnoteRef:15]; deterring war among the world's major powers[footnoteRef:16]; securing victory in war[footnoteRef:17]; significantly assisting in the nation's homeland defense[footnoteRef:18]; contributing to building and maintaining international partnerships among nations[footnoteRef:19]; and enhancing its six core capabilities of forward presence, deterrence, sea control, power projection, maritime security, and humanitarian and disaster responsiveness.[footnoteRef:20] in this way, sea, maritime and naval forces are being used to secure global peace, security and prosperity. [11: Ibid., p. 426.] [12: Scott B. Borgerson. The National Interest and the Law of the Sea: Council Special Report No. 46. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 2009, p. 24.] [13: United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, United States Coast Guard. "A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower." www.navy.mil Web site. October 2007. http://www.navy.mil/maritime/MaritimeStrategy.pdf (accessed April 4, 2013), p. 5.] [14: Ibid.] [15: Ibid., pp. 9, 11-12.] [16: Ibid., p. 10.] [17: Ibid.] [18: Ibid.] [19: Ibid., p.11.] [20: Ibid., pp. 12-14.]

2. Question #2: Compare and Contrast Greek and Roman Naval Warfare

Greece was composed of fragmented city-states that did not build an extensive road system tying them together. The political and economic fortunes of Ancient Greece were tied to the Sea.[footnoteRef:21] the Mediterranean Sea, in particular,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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