Mitochondria Introduction and Experimental Information Thesis

Pages: 9 (2812 words)  ·  Style: MLA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 11  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Family and Marriage

Mitochondria

Introduction and Experimental Information

Mitochondria are found in eukaryote cells and make molecules that produce energy. They have their own separate NA and are passed to the offspring from the mother. Unless there is a mutation, the mitochondria of the offspring are exactly the same as those of its mother. In this mitochondrial DNA there is a control region.

Mutation in this mtDNA is much faster than other DNA and without seeing changes to DNA based on genetic recombination events it is a logical assumption that any changes that take place in the mtDNA were from constant mutation over time. This information can then be analyzed to resolve differences but there are problems that can also stop this analysis from showing the true rate of mutation.

These problems include parallel substitution, back mutation, and rates of heterogeneity. Entire genomes are often used to construct phylogenetic trees and are considered to be more reliable and accurate. Human evolution has four models and these are MRE, RAE, AES, and RLE. Looking at genetic markers helps to show which one of these theories may be most accurate and it has been found that tracing individuals from many different areas of the world back to a common ancestor seems to be the most logical assumption.

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In order to replace DNA in a laboratory in relatively small amounts it is necessary to do a polymerase chain reaction. This involves three specific steps: denature the DNA, anneal of primers, and extension of primers. For this kind of experiment saliva can be taken from each person to get a DNA sample.

Thesis on Mitochondria Introduction and Experimental Information Mitochondria Are Assignment

After spinning the saliva with a saline solution in a microcentrifuge for five minutes the cell pellet would be suspended and transferred to another microcentrifuge and a Chelex solution. After some further processing the tube would then be placed in a freezer for storage. The polymerase chain reaction would be performed in the second week, and the tube would again be stored in the freezer. In the third week the product from the PCR would be examined by running an electrophoresis and using a UV light to examine the gel in order to make a determination of the DNA information.

The Process of Aging

The mitochondria are believed to be strongly tied in to the process of aging in humans and other mammals. Many people believe that children go through many phases of development, but adults stay basically the same, but the study of cells and the changes that people go through would indicate that this is not the case. This is untrue in many ways, as adults also experience development in several areas.

Physical development slows somewhat as people reach adulthood, but there is still physical development during an adult's life and there are many changes on the cellular level, many of which involve the mitochondria. There are also mental, emotional, and cognitive developments to be considered, as these play a large role in adult life, and these can be broken down to a cellular level, as well.

The purpose of this section of the paper is to discuss these developments and provide understanding of them, as well as discuss what adults can do for the optimal development in these areas as they move through their lives and their bodies and minds change. They cannot control what their cells and mitochondria do, but by paying attention to their bodies and taking care of them, they can help to keep themselves healthy as long as possible.

Some of the development that takes place in adulthood is shaped by what people learn and do when they are children, so parents play a large role in adult as well as child development, but most people do not realize how much of a role their actual cells and biological makeup can affect this. How parents treat their children is important, but how parents treat their adult children is also significant. This can be seen a great deal in how fathers act with their male children and what kind of fathers these children become when they are grown (Roy, 2003). Mothers also play a role, but it would appear that young boys identify most strongly with their fathers and the father's behavior affects them all of their lives. They get a lot of their DNA and genetic makeup from their fathers, as it is the father who determines the sex of the child.

There are ways to change behavior in adulthood if it becomes necessary, but that is a difficult process and not always successful. It would be advocated in instances where the father may have been abusive and the son now shows these tendencies toward their own children, because these kinds of things are generally environmental and do not have the genetic component in the cells that some individuals talk about. This working to change these behaviors is part of adult development on a mental and emotional level, and also works toward the promotion of optimal development in the area of their families and children. When families take care of one another and themselves as individuals it can help to slow the progression of disease and other problems on a cellular level. How they act and what they do with their lives can actually effect the health of their mitochondria to some degree.

Harvard University's Grant Study of Adult Development is probably the most famous and the most long-running of all studies into adult development. The Study was first started in 1938, and it continues to track the lives of almost all of the men that were originally involved in it. This is important, because it shows how adult development changes over time and how the age of the adult plays a factor in what they do and whether they choose to change the way they are or leave well enough alone (Bailey, 1988).

The Study was coming to an end in the late 1980's because most of the participants were well into their 60's, and many of them had retired or died. However, the main issue that the study raised is that the difference in class and in socioeconomic status that was seen in these families when these men were young was not an issue when they became older and had careers of their own. In other words, this kind of thing was not genetic but was only related to the environment that they were in. Whatever differences their fathers might have had, none of the men in the study let that hold them back. There was apparently no direct correlation between how well their fathers did and how well these men did, based on career abilities and psychological happiness, which was another indication that there was no cellular biology involved in how people lived their lives based on what they genetically inherited (Bailey, 1988).

This would appear to counteract the first piece of information discussed, because that showed a belief that how a father treated their son and dealt with life was then reflected in how the son reacted to the world. The Grant Study would indicate that there was no evidence for this. It also indicated some things that relate to how to receive optimal development in adult life. The men in the study that seemed to be the happiest were the ones who were helping others (Bailey, 1988).

Many of these people were teaching the younger generation things that they needed to know about business and other careers, and these men often had hobbies and other interests as well. Equally interesting was the fact that many of these men owned and managed their own businesses. It appeared that many of these people did not stay in large companies and wait for retirement, but rather they went out and worked on their own, following their hearts and their dreams to whatever place those things would take them. The people that stayed in the jobs with large companies, working for someone else, were the ones that were the least happy and the least creative. They might have many skills, but they failed to use those skills to their full potential, and this resulted in unhappiness with life and the feeling that they were stuck in a rut that they were unable to get out of (Bailey, 1988).

Analyzing others, even characters in movies, can help people to understand the stages of adult development and what people go through when they have a 'mid-life crisis' or other difficulties. Some instructors who teach adults also use movies in the classroom to help their students understand how adults move from the readiness to settle down and raise a family to the feeling that their life has no risks and challenges (Learning, 1997). Very few of them talk about biology and cellular issues because these cells play very little role in how a person actually acts or what he or she believes. They are more likely to play a role in a person's health from a physical standpoint than they… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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