Mncs Need Essay

Pages: 10 (4193 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 20  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Leadership

These types of employees never fear failure and when they do encounter it, rather than backing off they put more effort into that project to get it right the next time. Whereas, the performance oriented employees prefer doing the project which don't have a lot of chances of failure. They prefer doing easy jobs that are challenge free to get them right and expect appreciation and approval of others for their work. When faced by a failure of an assignment or project they become disappointed easily and back off rather than trying to get that project or assignment right. This is one challenge that HR training must aim to overcome.

There seems to be a need of further examining the relationship of goal orientation with the training motivation in MNCs as, when the phenomenon of goal orientation was applied to the training motivation it gave varying results. In a study that was conducted in 1998 by Colquitt and Simmering, they, for the very first time, described the significance of the association between the phenomenon of goal orientation and two motivational factors with the regards to training. Following are the two motivational factors:

1. Expectancy.

2. Valence.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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Essay on Mncs Need to Consider When Assignment

They negatively related the performance of goal orientation with expectancy and valence. While, learning goal orientation was positively related with these two motivation factors in their study. This theory seems to be true as it is normally observed that the MNC employees who show learning goal orientation, their levels of expectancy and valence are higher than those who prefer performance goal orientation. It was found by Smith et al. (2008) that both the performance goal orientation as well as learning goal orientation has a positive impact on expectancy and valence and these authors found this by using the theories on both expectancy and goal. Also, it was found that valence provides a very important link between the motivation to learn goal intentions and goal orientation. According to Chiaburu and Marinova (2005), there is no significant relationship between performance goal orientation and pre-training motivation, while a strong connection between the learning goal orientation and pre-training motivation was observed by them. Hence, it seems that there exists an important relationship between goal orientation and training motivation in MNCs which should be examined and studied. Therefore, in the light of the above mentioned studies and theories we can make two hypotheses,

1. First; the learning goal orientation is positively related to the three dimensions of the training motivation (H1a),

2. Second; the performance goal orientation is negatively related to the three dimension of the training motivation (H1b).

Already present factors that can affect the training motivation

The situation which provokes training in MNCs includes the factors that are opposite to the ones concerning the personal characteristics of the trainee such as training program reputation (Facteau et al., 1995; Switzer et al., 2005); supervisor/peer support (Brinkerhoff and Montesino, 1995; Chiaburu and Marinova, 2005; Chiaburu et al., 2010; Facteau et al., 1995; Tai, 2006); and situational constraints (Klein et al., 2006; Mathieu et al., 1992). Job support is an important factor that is related to this category but has not received a lot of attention. Work/job support is a variable of the company's technical job department which basically determines the nature of the job assignments. According to Ford et al. (1992), the trainees/employees at a company get a lot of opportunities to learn new techniques, gain more knowledge or get more practice by doing the different kinds of assignments in their workplaces. Therefore, it seems probable that the work/job support is another variable that is important to the training motivation. Hence, we hypothesized that the job support has a very important as well as positive effect on the training motivation (H2).

Impact of the training on trainee and other factors which influence that impact

It has been observed that training motivation has the ability to predict the different outcomes of training. Many researchers have found through their studies that training motivation is influenced by a number of factors such as preparation (Mathieu et al., 1992; Tai, 2006; Tannenbaum et al., 1991; Tracey et al., 2001), knowledge and skills transfer (Axtell et al., 1997; Blume et al., 2010; Burke and Baldwin, 1999; Chiaburu and Marinova, 2005; Facteau et al., 1995; Smith et al., 2008; Van den Bossche et al., 2010), knowledge and skills transfer (Axtell et al., 1997; Blume et al., 2010; Burke and Baldwin, 1999; Chiaburu and Marinova, 2005; Facteau et al., 1995; Smith et al., 2008; Van den Bossche et al., 2010), trainees' participation (Noe and Ford, 1992; Noe et al., 1997; Tharenou, 2001) and affective and utility reactions (Mathieu et al., 1992; Smith et al., 2008; Tracey et al., 2001). According to Holton and Baldwin (2003) for the new knowledge and techniques that are learned by the trainee during the training to be implemented in the actual workplace it is very important for the workplace to have the same atmosphere that the training environment had. For that reason, Burke and Baldwin (1999) say that in many cases optimal transfer of knowledge learned by the employee, when he/she was under training, is not often observed. By studying and measuring the training motivation as a multidimensional construct we can improve our understanding of the relationship between training transfer and training motivation. Therefore, in the light of all these studies and theories, we hypothesized that there is a significant as well as positive relationship between the training motivation expectancy and the intention to transfer that training (H3).

Measuring training motivation

Although many studies have been done on the training motivation but still there isn't one definite definition for it and many theorists and researchers have their own point-of-views about it. For case in point, according to Hicks and Klimoski (1987) it is the effort that the trainee puts in to learn some content related to his/her job or it is the desire that a trainee has to learn some course (Noe, 1986; Noe and Schmitt, 1986). Another study explains that it is the limit to which an employee/worker wants to participate in the training courses in order to learn new techniques and to apply all that knowledge in his/her job (Mathieu and Martineau, 1997). Colquitt and colleagues explain that it is the direction, intensity, and persistence towards learning in the training contexts (Colquitt et al., 2000). Whereas, in another study it is explained as the employee/trainee's hope that by learning more skills he/she will be able to perform at the workplace in a better way which will enhance his/her career (Mathieu et al., 1992). Smith and colleagues in their study explain that it is the aim to expand the work experience of the employee and hence achieve a goal and learn from the training program (Smith et al., 2008). This variety of definition is another challenge for MNCs to overcome when dealing with HR development and training in their own organization as they need to make sure that they understand how to best measure motivation in their internal and external circumstances.

Since the motivation to learn, goal intention and training motivation are more or less based on similar concepts their definitions have a conceptual overlap among them (Fraccaroli, 2007). Training motivation is conceptualized on:

1. Phenomenological descriptions.

2. Behavioral implications.

In case of the phenomenological description training motivation is conceptualized on the basis of interest, desire and the extent to which you are involved in a learning process. Whereas, in case of the behavioral implications, the training motivation is conceptualized on the basis of the internal characteristics of an organization including factors like goal intention and the persistency or effort to learn.


According to Battistelli et al. (2007); Colquitt et al. (2000); Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992) it is very important to use multi-dimensional theories in order to correctly evaluate the measurements used to calculate the motivation to learn or participate in HR development/training in MNCs. There are many authors like Baldwin and Ford (1988); Colquitt and Simmering (1998); Mathieu and Martineau (1997); Mathieu et al. (1992); Smith et al. (2008); Tannenbaum et al. (1991); Tharenou (2001) according to whom the valence-instrumentality-expectancy (VIE) approach can be effective in studying about the HR training and development motivation and strategies in MNCs.


Argyris, C. And Schon, D.A. (1978), Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Arora, A. And Asundi, J. (2000), "Quality certi cation and the economics of contract software development: a study of the Indian software industry," NBER Working Paper No. 7260, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management and Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Ashton, D.N. And Sung, J. (2002), Supporting Workplace Learning for High Performance Working, International Labour Organisation, Geneva.

Axtell, C.M., Maitlis, S. And Yearta, S.K. (1997), "Predicting immediate and longer-term transfer of training," Personnel Review, Vol. 26, pp. 201-13.

Baldwin, T.T. And Ford, J.K. (1988), "Transfer of training: a review and directions for future research,"… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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