Modern Inventions That Changed the World Research Paper

Pages: 4 (1834 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Women's Issues - Sexuality

Birth Control

Short Message Service

Introductory Paragraph

The advent of the Short Message Service (SMS) has altered the way that way communicate by making the 'text message' or the act of 'texting' a standard form of personal and professional communication. The research proposal outlined here would prove that the SMS has had a direct impact on the way that we relate in terms communicating information, using language and reflecting cultural orientation.

The use of the text message in everyday life has altered the way that we receive and convey information, essentially altering the way that we interact with one another via telecommunications.

We send more texts than phone calls

According to the research by Erickson (2012), as of the year 2007, the number of text messages sent eclipsed the number of phone calls made for the first time in history.

This denotes that phone users have increasingly sought to communicate with friends and colleagues without speaking directly, a dramatic shift in the way information is conveyed.

B. SMS is the most widely used data application in the world.

1. According to Erickson, 81% of mobile users employ texting

2. In less than two decades, this figure demonstrates, texting has achieved near universal penetration amongst cell phone users.

C. Virtual keyboards have become standard on cellphones

1. Erickson points out that the integration of the virtual keyboard on all cellphones is evidence of the technologies total penetration of telecom media.

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2. This design standardization underscores the expectation that the vast majority of cell phone users today will employ the SMS technology

III. The text message has become a medium unto itself, altering the way that we use language in communication with one another and in some instances reducing the standards of linguistic refinement required in other communication contexts.

A. Evidence suggests that the text is reducing the amount of direct human interaction that we experience.

TOPIC: Research Paper on Modern Inventions That Changed the World Assignment

1. Boswell warns that our proclivity toward texting is reducing our comfort with or willingness to engage in meaningful face-to-face social activity and interaction.

2. Boswell warns that eye-contact, rhetorical discretion and non-verbal c ommunication skills have all suffered from dependence on texting.

B. Text users often make exceptions for linguistic distortion to facilitate the short-message format

1. Many young people are learning how to use the short-form communication with much greater focus than proper linguistic usage.

2. According to Boswell (2012), "more than 35% of children in second and third grade own cell phones. The irony is that these young kids are now becoming more versed in texting lingo than they are in proper English and face-to-face conversation."

C. Emodicons, acronyms and other text-specific symbols and images have come to replace full phrases within the medium.

1. Texting promotes a kind of creative laziness where verbal expression is concerned.

2. Some social theorists worry that this reliance on shorthand images and abbreviations will reduce linguistic dexterity or versatility.

IV. The ways that individuals use text messages, either personally or professionally, are often demonstrative of particular cultural affiliations such as those related to age, ethnicity or other demographic markers.

A. Texting originally intended for the hearing impaired

1. Early commercial use in the 1990s proved valuable to progressive small-businesses and it innovators

2. Usage shifted dramatically by the start of the 21st century, as mainstream usage of texting became the norm.

B. Countries such as the Phillipines have demonstrated a particular penchant for texting due to particular economic circumstances.

1. Research suggests that in some cultural contexts, such as with many Asian countries, texting achieves higher than average usage, often owing to broad contextual factors such as lifestyle orientation or affordability.

2. Explanation

The article by Urmann points out that in "2007 alone, there are 42.70 million people who are subscribers of mobile phones. Text messaging has been very popular in the Philippines because it has been a cheap and reliable alternative means of communication."

C. Teens use texting in ways specific to current youth culture.

1. Research points out that uptake and frequency of usage have been highest amongst teen users, and that specific usage trends have been pinned to said teens.

2. 'Sexting,' the use of the SMS medium to send sexually provocative messages or images, is an increasingly popular mode of usage for teens.

V. Conclusion Paragraph

There is little denying that the text message has become integrated as a part of our everyday lives. However, as the outline here above demonstrates, we often give very little thought to the way that this integration impacts our behaviors and our interactions. The deconstruction of communicative, linguistic and cultural realities pertinent to the increased permeation of text-message presented here above should lend some insight into the ways that we ourselves have been changed by our the way we interact with this technology.

Works Cited:

Primary:

Milian, M. (2009). Why Text Messages are Limited to 160 Characters. Los Angeles Times.

Shannon, V. (2007). 15 Years of Text Messages, a 'Cultural Phenomenon.' The New York Times.

Secondary:

Boswell, S. (2012). Lost in Translation: Texting Killing Human Communication Skills. The DePaulia.

Chan, a.; Lau, J.; Liu, S. & Mabe, E. (2004). The Social Impacts of Mobile Phones and Text Messaging. Wayback Machine.

Erickson, C. (2012). A Brief History of Text Messaging. Mashable Tech.

Snowden, C. (2007). Casting a Powerful Spell: The Evolution of SMS. Peter Lang Publishing.

Urmann, DH (2009). The History of Text Messaging. Article Base.

Birth Control:

I. Introductory Paragraph

This most recent election cycle brought unexpected focus to the public discourse over Birth Control. Nearly half-a-century from the start of the women's liberation movement, birth control is an issue which continues to implicate widely divergent practical and philosophical ideas regarding contraception. In particular, as the essay proposed here will show, innovation and improved research both continue in this field, even as they are obstructed by the moral objections of political conservatives and religious groups.

II. The medical community continues to engage in research and development aimed at improving the safety, effectiveness and variety of available methods of contraception.

A. Researchers continue to seek out new and less hormonally intrusive ways of providing women with effective contraception.

1. The article by Suszynski (2012) indicates that methods such as a skin-applied gel or an intravaginal emergency contraception could be on the market soon.

2. Research continues to minimize the side effects relating to these methods without blunting their effectiveness.

B. Work continues to reduce the risks sometimes associated with birth control methods

1. Low level risks such as possible blood clots continue to stand in the way of over-the-counter birth control.

2. The article by Rettner (2012) says that the FDA would be required to test the safety and effectiveness of every method of birth control made available over the counter.

C. Among the advances in the variety of contraceptive methods, recent research tells that a male birth control pill may soon be available.

1. According to the article from Cell Press (2012), "A male birth control pill hasn't been easy to come by in large part because of the challenge of getting any drug across the blood:testis barrier, where it can reach the sperm-generating cells. That lack of contraceptive alternatives for men is partially responsible for the high rate of unplanned pregnancies."

2. Scientists using lab mice have made advances in creating temporary and reversible infertility in men.

III. Research continues to advance our understanding of the reproductive system and to improve the responsiveness of this understanding as reflected by methods of contraception.

A. Research demonstrates that some methods of birth control may carry more unwanted side effects than others.

1. For instance, the study from Indiana University (IU) (2011) denotes that the hormonal method of birth control carries a number of potentially negative sexual side effects.

2. According to IU, "women using hormonal contraception experienced less arousal, fewer orgasms, difficulties with lubrication, decreased pleasure and less frequent sex."

B. Some methods of birth control have been proven by continuing research to promote better results than others.

1. A recent study, reported on by MacMillan, shows that intrauterine devices (IUDs) or under-skin implants are more effective than the birth control pill.

2. MacMillan reports that "According to a new study, these long-acting forms of contraception are 20 times better at preventing unintended pregnancies than the Pill and other short-term methods."

C. Research increasingly supports the ideas that birth control pills can be safely administered over the counter and without prescription.

1. According to Neergaard (2012), the association of OB/GYNs asserted that birth control pills should be sold over the counter like condoms.

2. The decision is based on emergent findings that this availability would substantially reduce the number of unintended pregnancies in the U.S.

IV. Philosophical objections from groups with political, ideological or religious motives are a constant presence in the public discourse over contraception.

A. Many conservative political office holders and religious leaders connect birth control with the debate over a woman's right to choose.

1. To many of its critics, contraception is both an… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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