Moon and Apollo MissionsResearch Paper

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¶ … Apollo space missions. Inquiries, for example, like who began the Space Race and why, what was fulfilled on these expeditions and what were the identities of the acclaimed individuals on these missions will be responded to. The American public mentality towards space investigation will also be deliberated upon.

Who Started the Space Race and Why?

At the end of World War II in the 1940's, another clash started. It was referred to as the Cold War; this fight set two of the world's greatest superpowers at that time, the communist Union of socialist soviet republics (USSR) and the capitalist and democratic United States (U.S.) against one another. Starting just before 1960s, space would get to be an alternative field where this rivalry would play out, as every side looked to demonstrate the high quality of its inventions and innovations, its war capabilities and also the functionality and effectiveness of both its political systems and financial structures (The Space Race). Space travel and exploration was the alternative field for Cold War rivalry. It was the Russians who drew the first blood when they dispatched Sputnik (Russian meaning "explorer") this was the world's first man-made satellite to be put into the Earth's orbit, on the 4th of October 1957, via the Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic rocket. The launch of this satellite was unexpected and unpalatable to the Americans. What's more, this showing of the staggering force of the R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile which was apparently fit enough for dispatching an atomic warhead onto U.S. soil made intelligence gathering activities on the Soviet Armed Forces exercises, especially dire. The U.S.S.R. made even further strides forward in the year 1959 when they dispatched Luna 2, the first spacecraft to hit the moon (The Space Race).

Even more success was achieved by the soviets in April 1961, as their cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first individual to circle or orbit the Earth, voyaging in Vostok 1, a capsule-shaped space vehicle. For the U.S. The push to send a man into space, was named Project Mercury, NASA engineering designers came up with a spacecraft molded after a cone and less heavier than Vostok; they tried it with chimpanzees, and held its last experimental run/test flight in March 1961 preceding the Soviet's Gagarin's launch (The Space Race). Almost during the close of that May, President John F. Kennedy made the striking, audacious declaration that the U.S. would take man to the moon before the close of the decade. The U.S. dispatched Apollo 8 in the December of 1968, this was the first spacecraft with a human crew to circle the moon, and it was carried out from NASA's gigantic launch complex on Merritt Island, adjacent to Cape Canaveral Florida. On the following July 16th of 1969, American space explorers Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins took off on the Apollo 11 space project, this was the initial attempt to land man on the moon. In the wake of safe landing on July the 20th the following year, Armstrong became the first man to walk on the lunar surface; 'a small step for man and a giant leap for mankind', Armstrong is reported to have said of the moment (The Space Race).

The Astronauts on Each Apollo Mission and What happened on Each Mission

The Most Famous Apollo Mission

Of the celebrated Apollo missions, Apollo 11 was the most popular one. It was the mission that landed the first men on the moon, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin at about 20:18 GMT on July the 20th 1969. Armstrong stepped out onto the lunar surface about six hours later on July the 21st at 02:56 GMT (Stenger, 2001). Armstrong spent around over 150 minutes outside the shuttle, Aldrin marginally less, and together they gathered 47.5 pounds of moon surface material for studies back in Earth. The third individual from the mission, Michael Collins, steered the shuttle alone in the moons orbit up to when Armstrong and Aldrin came back to it for the voyage back to Earth.

On the live telecast to the world, Armstrong ventured onto the lunar surface and reported the occasion as one as a giant leap for mankind for the one small step he had taken (Stenger, 2001). Apollo 11 successfully won the Space Race for the U.S. And satisfied a national objective that had been proposed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy in a discourse before the U.S. Congress in which he stated that before the end of that decade the United States will land a man on the moon and return him back home to the earth safely (Stenger, 2001).

Other Apollo Missions:

Apollo 1 (Makara, 2004) and the disaster that occurred:

The crew was composed of three individuals; who included Commander Virgil Grissom, Pilot Chaffe and CM Pilot White.This particular mission was never dispatched. This is because of a fire that started in the Apollo command module on the 27th of January 1967 during a trial run on the launch station, pulverizing the module and burning to death Grissom, Chaffee and CM Pilot White. A launch vehicle, the Saturn 1B, was unharmed and later utilized for the Apollo 5 mission.

Apollo 7 (Makara, 2004):

The crew was composed of three individuals; who included Walter M. Schirra, Walter Cunningham and Donn F. Eisele. This particular shuttle was redesigned to boost confidence. After the platform fire, the Command Module had been newly built and widely upgraded. The only cosmonaut to have flown in the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions, Schirra, was in charge of the repairs of the modules.

Apollo 8 (Makara, 2004):

The crew was composed of three individuals; who included Frank Borman, William A. Anders and James A. Lovell. The Apollo 8 space explorers were the first people to wander past low-Earth circle and venture into a whole new world. What was initially intended to have been an observation of the Earth's orbit in preparation for moon landing, turned into a race with the Soviets to become the first country to circle the Moon. The Apollo 8 team flew inside the Command Module, with no lunar Lander joined. They were the first space explorers to be dispatched by the Saturn V, launch vehicle, which had flown just twice in the recent past. The SPS engines that had been examined on Apollo 7 roared into life and the boosters did their job flawlessly.

Apollo 8 got into the moon's orbit on the 24th of December in 1968. For about a day later the astronauts flew around the Moon, which looked like a gray, dark and desolate landscape through their window. They took photos, searched for future landing spots, and on Christmas Eve read to TV viewers from the first book of the bible. They additionally captured the first Earthrise as observed from the Moon. Apollo 8 demonstrated the capacity to travel to and from the Moon, and gave an enormous help to the whole Apollo missions program.

Apollo 17 and Artifacts Collected On the Moon (Makara, 2004):

The crew was composed of three individuals; who included A. Cernan, Harrison H.Schmitt and Ronald E. Evans. This was the last Apollo mission in which Cernan became the last man to walk on the moon while Ronald Evans piloted the vehicle around the orbit, Schmitt and Cernan gathered the most amount of rock ever collected on the moon (about 108.86 kilograms) on 3 moon-walks. The group wandered for 33.80 kilometers through a moon valley known as Taurus-Littrow in their Moon Buggy, found orange-hued soil, and left behind a plaque; which stated that man had finished his first exploration of the moon on December of 1972 and that may the spirit of peace and harmony that had taken them their be mirrored in the lives of all people. The Apollo missions had been completed. No women were incorporated in these programs.

The Cost of Missions

In spite of spending huge amounts of money and decades of work spent on undertakings as different as NASA's spacecrafts, Rotary Rocket and the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), affordable access to space has not yet been achieved. This has made it difficult to tap into the unlimited possibilities of space travel. In any case, all that could be a thing of the past as per those developing new designs of spacecrafts (Messier, 2014). We should do it because the innovations and technologies are ready and there is a need to, said Jeff Lane, the head engineer of Advanced High Speed Systems at Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, amid an affordable access to space panel dialogue in San Jose, California. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems is part of the competing teams in the United States government's XS-1 project, whose mission is to bring down the costs for access to space. The project, driven by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), expects to come up with a completely reusable unmanned spacecrafts with aero plane like capabilities including having the capacity to fly ten times in ten days, fit with a carrying capacity… [END OF PREVIEW]

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