Term Paper: Morphology a Large Range

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[. . .] where an indication is adequate to designate the whole. For instance; exam (ination), math (ematics), and lab (oratory) invented in school jargon; spec (ulation) and tick (et = credit) in stock-exchange jargon; and vet (eran) and cap (tain) in army jargon. Whilst truncation, the words that are used by some influential groups are also included in the Standard English language due to their frequent utilization whereas the truncation of local people will stay as colloquial speech.

The most common truncation kinds have been listed below:

Back-truncation

The most frequent type employed is the back truncation. In this the commencement is preserved or maintained and the untruncated fundamental can be a simple or a composite. For instance: ad is used as the short form of advertisement; cable is used as the short form of cablegram; doc is used as the short form of doctor; exam is used as the short form of examination; fax is used as the short form of facsimile. Similarly, gas is used as the short form of gasoline; gym is used as the short form of gymnastics and/or / gymnasium.

Fore-truncation

Fore-truncation is the type of truncation that maintains the ending part. For instance: chute is used as the short form of parachute; coon is used as the short form of raccoon; gator is used as the short form of alligator; phone is used as the short form of telephone; and pike is used as the short form of turnpike.

Middle truncation

The middle word is preserved in the middle truncation or syncope. For instance: flu is used as the short form of influenza; jams or jammies is used as the short form of pajamas/pyjamas. Similarly, polly is used as the short form of apollinaris and shrink is used as the short form of head-shrinker.

Complex truncation

The truncated forms can also be employed in compounds in which one part of the initial compound mostly stays whole. For instance: cablegram is used as the short form of cable telegram; op art is used as the short form of optical art. Similarly, org-man is used as the short form of organization man; and linocut is used as the short form of linoleum cut. There are times when the both divisions of the compound are truncated as in navicert (navigation certificate). Since the boundary between the 2 minds is not always distinct, it is hard to discern if the consequential formation is managed as a blend or truncation. As put forward by Bauer (1983), the simplest way to distinguish between the two is by regarding the forms which maintain compound stress as truncated compounds while those that take easy word stress as not.

Other types of truncations

As specified above, truncation is a reduced form of a word or given name. For instance: when its usage is employed in a close situation as a pet name or as endearment.

They are mostly produced as:

1. Reduce the longer word in English to a single syllable and add '-y' or 'ie' to it. For example: movie is used as the short form of moving picture, telly is used as the short form of television or Aussie is often used for Australian.

2. A shorten the original name. For example: Tony is used as the short form of Anthony, Rosy is used as the short form of Rosemarie and Vicky for Victoria.

3. A baby-talk form similar to the original name's pronunciation. For example: Bess for Elizabeth

4. Next is the name given with minute suffix which are used in some lingos when referring to children and when they are being used for an adult, then the meaning can swing from warmth to disdain.

5. -(c)ito/-(c)ita or -(c)in/-(c)ina in Spanish lingo, for example; Juana is used as the short form of Juanita. Additional consonants can be interjected such as Carmelina and Carmencita from Carmen, or combined, such as in Carmina

6. In German -chen, -lein, -(l)i, -(e)le (mostly applied with names), for instance Hundchen or Hundlein (from 'Hund', which means dog) or Kalli (from 'Karl) or Hausle and/or Hausele (from 'Haus'); a back vowel in the origin is generally circumflexed that is to shift or alter from u, o, a to u, o, a correspondingly

7. An analogous form is -etto/-etta, in Interlingua.

8. The typical truncated finishing in Dutch in the case of words and individual names the same: -tje, -ke. In the case where the name finishes with a t or a d the end is then a -je (for example Bert - Bertje). If the ending consonant of a name is m, it then fishes with -pje (for example Bram - Brampje) or even an -metje (for example Bram or Brammetje) or th end can also be -mie (for example Bram - Brammie). As for the other consonants the truncated form followed is -tje. The truncated form that is mostly employed in southern Netherland is -ke (for example Peer or Peerke). In the Frisian the common truncated finish is -ke (for example Ype or Ypke) but the drawback of this form (and others like -ske and/or -tsje) is that it ends up making the name sound feminine (for example Jetse - Jetske) similar to in Dutch (for example Jan for Jantje and Hans for Hansje). Apart from this there is one more truncated finish; in the eastern Netherland (the female mode is -- chien, for example: Anne for Annechien and Lammert for Lammechien.

9. Similarly in Portuguese, with words ending in -(z)inho and/or -(z)inha, for example Ana for Aninha along with Joao for Joaozinho.

10. Again in Italian and the local lingos in Italy, with -ino/-ina along with -etto/etta as in Paolina/Paoletta and Paolino/Paoletto from Paolo and/or Paola. -ello/-ella are also used such as Donato and Donata for Donatello/Donatella. Similarly, -uccio/-uccia are also used, for example Guido for Guiduccio and -etto/-etta, for example Giulia for Giulietta. The -uzzo/-uzza forms, such as in Santa for Santuzza, are characteristic of Sicilian dialect.

11. In Esperanto, -?j- and -nj- affixes (for males and females correspondingly) are applied substituting the final consonant of the origin, thus patro is used for pa-jo (father in English Langauge) and patrino is used for panjo (mother in English Langauge).

12. In Japanese, -chan, -tan, or -pi is employed. For example: Kana for Kana-chan and Akihiro for Aki-chan. If prior to -chan we Geminate (doubling) the consonant or lengthen the vowel, to supply two moras is regular, for instance Setsuko for Settchan and Hiroki for Hii-chan.

13. To form a replica in a variety of lingos like John-John or Didi.

14. In Cantonese and connected dialects, the adding up of a word-final very elevated tone, or altered tone at times merging with the supplementing of prefix 'A' prior to the name. The A syllable is also employed in other dialects taking its birth from the south of China as an expression of warmth and intimacy.

15. In Latin -ulus/-ula mainly popular in the times of the Roman emperor Caligula, whose name means "little boot." He got the name from the soldiers because of the little army sandals he wore when he was juvenile. Similarly the name Ursula is comes from ursa (bear) and signifies "little bear."

16. In Yiddish "-eleh/-leh" such as Leah and/or Leahleh.

As implied from the examples mentioned above, truncations often display (indirectly) a phonological linguistic tendency for reverberations to be employed for slighter being and items. Since smaller creatures have a smaller larynx, they end up making high pitched sounds.

Truncations in various languages

English

The use of nicknames is very common in the English people as well and they use these nicknames in a lot of ways. They often tend to shorten the names to the first syllable such as; for Abraham they use the nickname Abe, for Anthony they often use Tony or Ant, for Benjamin, Benedict the use of nicknames Ben and Benny is very common. Similarly the name Carolyn is often nicknamed as Carol, Lyn or Carrie/Cary, Christopher as Chris, Criffer or Topher, the name Deborah as Deb or Debby. The names like Edwin, Edward, Edmund have seen to have common nicknames such as; Ed, Eddie, whereas, the common names like Elizabeth are noticed to have a lot of nicknames like; Eliza, Betty, Libby, Liz, Lizzy, Lisa, Beth, Bess. For the name Fiona the nickname Fi is very common, for Gabriel its Gabe, for Gregory its Greg and in the same way for Jacob it is Jake, then for a more common name like Jonathan the nicknames are Jon, John, and Nathan and for Joseph the nicknames often heard are Joe, Joey (Aronoff and Fudeman, 2010).

Similarly, the nicknames for some other names such as Katherine are Kate, Katy or Kathy, for Katrina; Kat, Trina are used, for Matthew it's Matt for Megan; Meg and for Michael it's Mike. The similar names like Nathan, Nathaniel have the nicknames such as; Nat, Nate for Peter the nicknames are Pete or Petey, for… [END OF PREVIEW]

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