What Motivates People in a Non-Profit Organization Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2143 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 15  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Business - Management

¶ … Motivate Individuals in the Non-Profit Organization

Failure on the part of management in the non-profit organization to understand the factors that genuinely motivate employees of the non-profit results in lowering the bar for performance of the organization as a whole and for individual employee satisfaction.

The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the factors that motivate employees of the non-profit organization.

The significance of this study is the new knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge in this subject area and the light that will be shed upon the factors that genuinely motivate employees of the non-profit organization.

EXPECTED OUTCOMES of STUDY

The expected outcomes of this study are that specific factors will be identified that serve to motivate employees of the non-profit organization.

METHODOLOGY

The methodology of this study will be one of a qualitative nature through conduction of relevant peer-reviewed academic and professional literature. The qualitative method in rigorous research of management issues is addressed in the work of Mittman (2001) who states that: "Proponents have convincingly argued that qualitative methods contribute findings and insights that cannot be derived from 'conventional' or 'quantitative' research methods..." The qualitative method of research is found to be the most appropriate method in "developing insights into actors' values, beliefs, understandings and interpretations of events and other phenomena, or in explaining historical occurrences.

HYPOTHESES

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H1: Different methods of motivation are necessary for use in facilitation of motivation of employees in the non-profit work environment because the priorities, goals, personal and professional needs, and maturity levels are varied among different employees of the organization and motivational factors effective for some employees may not be effective for other employees.

H2: One specific factor stands above all others for effective motivation of employees in the non-profit organization.

TOPIC: Term Paper on What Motivates People in a Non-Profit Organization Assignment

H3: One specific leadership style is more effective in motivating employees in the non-profit organization than are all others.

PRELIMINARY REVIEW of LITERATURE

I. THEORIES of MOTIVATION

Motivation of employees generally falls squarely upon the shoulders of the manager. It is the manager who either motivates or fails to motivate employees in the workplace and this is true in for-profit and non-profit organizations alike. Research has stated findings that employees who are motivated are more creative and more productive. Abraham Maslow proposed a motivation theory based on the "Hierarchy of Needs" in the early 1940s and suggested that there are five sets of goals which he termed 'basic needs' which include: (1) physiological; (2) safety; (3) love; (4) esteem; and (5) self-actualization. (Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity, 2007) Maslow's theory in summary states that once the more basic needs of the individual are fulfilled they are able to move on with a secure feeling of self-confidence and become useful and effective in their role in the workplace. George Elton Mayo conducted experiments on human behavior at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric company between 1924 and 1927 in Chicago and contributed findings to research regarding organizational development and specifically human relations and motivation theory. Mayo came to conclusions during his studies which include: (1) work is a group activity; (2) the social world of the adult is primarily patterned about work activity; (3) the need for recognition, security and a sense of belonging is more important in determining workers' morale and productivity than the physical conditions under which he works; (4) a complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts, it is commonly a symptom manifesting disturbance of an individual's status position; (5) the workers is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both inside and outside the work place; (6) Information groups within the work place exercise strong social controls over the work habits and attitudes of the individual workers; (7)Group collaboration does not occur by accident, it must be planned and developed. (Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity, 2007; paraphrased) the work of Argyris relates that policies in the workplace of a bureaucratic nature results in distrust and to veneer types of relationships in the workplace but that humanistic or democratic policies and values leads to authentic relationships and increasing organizational effectiveness. The work of Likert relates four organizational types and four management types in the vast research, which he conducted on human behavior within organizations. The four management types proposed by Likert include: (1) exploitive-authoritative; (2) benevolent-authoritative; (3) consultative; and (4) participative-group, types of management. Likert states that the features of effective management include: (1) that the motivation to work is facilitated through moderns principles and techniques instead of the traditional reward and threat system; (2) employees must be viewed as individuals with needs, desires and values of their own and with self-esteem that must be enhanced; (3) builds the organization of highly cohesive and effective work groups on the basis of the commitment to achieving the organization's objectives; and (4) supportive relationships must necessarily exist within the work group characterized by mutual respect. (Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity, 2007; paraphrased) McClelland and his colleagues studies for over two decades at Harvard University in an attempt to understand what provides motivation for achievement. McClelland states in his findings that individuals who are "achievement motivated' individuals are those who are more concerned with achievement on a personal level than with the rewards that come with having achieved. This is related to the theory proposed by Herzberg's 2 Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory which states that the first factor, or the hygiene factors include: (1) the organization; (2) policies and administration; (3) supervision; (4) working conditions; (5) interpersonal relations; (6) salary; (7) status; and (8) job security. While these factors do not lead to motivation, these factors are necessary if employees are to be satisfied. The second component is related to what employees actually do while at work and that these activities should be developed into the employee's job so that intrinsic motivation will be developed in the workplace. These factors are: (1) achievement; (2) recognition; (3) growth and advancement; and (4) Interest in the job. Herzberg holds both of the approaches including all of the factors in each approach must be taken into consideration simultaneously. Finally, the work of McGregor relating to motivation or "Theory X and Theory Y' is presented in the work entitled: "The Human Side of Enterprise" which states that the average individual inherently dislikes works and will avoid work if at all possible so therefore: (1)because of their dislike for work people must be controlled and threatened if they are going to work hard; and (2) the average individual prefers to be given instructions, does not like responsibility and values security above all things. Theory Y Assumptions stated by McGregor include: (1) the expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as rest of play; (2) control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work because a committed individual is able to self-direct his own work; (3) job satisfaction results in organizational commitment; (4) under appropriate conditions the average individual will accept and even seek out responsibility; (5) Creativity, imagination, and ingenuity are used in problem-solving by many individuals; and (6) the intellectual potentialities of the average individual are only utilized in part in modern organizations. Theory X refers to immature and codependent employees who lack self-esteem and autonomy necessary to self-motivate. Theory Y refers to more mature employees who are self-confident, able to self-direct and self-motivate. The primary assumption of McGregor is that if management treats employees with self-respect and communicates the value of the employees then the employees will have a greater capacity to contribute to the organization.

II. INTRINSIC and EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

There are two types of motivational factors identified by research, which include: (1) extrinsic factors; and (2) intrinsic factors affecting motivation of the individual. Intrinsic factors of motivation are 'internal' factors such as commitment, pride in doing a good job, satisfaction in reaching goals that are set, and simply being knowing that one has done their absolute best in performing a task. Extrinsic motivators are 'external' factors that are known to motivate individuals such as a receiving a raise, an award, or public recognition for a job well done. It is important for the manager to know which employees are those who are intrinsically motivated and to know which employees are extrinsically motivated.

The work of Heng-Yu Chang entitled: "Qualitative Research on Leader Speech Communication Content: Leader Behaviors and Subordinate's Trust" (2005) relates that in modern times, "the research area in human resource management does not focus on the individual work performance anymore, but emphasize on the communication and relations between employers and employees instead. Communication can lead an organization to go for the common cause, and the management has to affirm organizational vision and mission, drive transformational change, issue a call to action, reinforce organizational capabilities and crate an environment where motivation can flourish." (Chang, 2005) the work of Bennett, Dorsey, and Graham (2006) entitled: "Transformational Leadership" which reports a… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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