Term Paper: Motivation in Sport

Pages: 50 (19272 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] The inconsistency in sport confidence that exists in duration of time is influenced in basic by the sources of the confidence. (Weinberg & Gould, 1999, p.24).

Researchers can make an effort to realize how the sources of sport confidence would make an impact on the athlete's performance, level of confidence, cognition, emotion and behaviors. They may also carefully analyze the confidence that is derived from sources by realizing the interaction of the social background, organizational cultures, and the nuances of the athlete. Sport competition is a basic atmosphere for pursuance of excellence and performance. How actually the achievement of confidence is derived? The achievement goal theory which comes under the social cognitive build has been seen as becoming a known model for this research in the field of sport psychology.

The researchers that existed previously in the Achievement Goal Theory made a discovery that the orientation of the task in climate would develop the motivation and confidence. There exists a close association between goal orientation and sport confidence. Particularly, the task orientations of the athletes are positive associations to their sports confidence.

In other context, if an athlete lays an emphasis on the acquisition of the skill, and both learning and competitive processes, his/her level of confidence would be more. Shane in 2000 analyzed 620 high school and college going athletes of both masculine and feminine gender to analyze the association between goal orientation and sport confidence. The discoveries had indications that both gender of athletes are prominent in the task orientation, ego orientation, and several factors associated to the source of sport confidence, as such existing as perfection in skill, display of ability, and physiological/psychological preparation. (Boyd; Weinmann, and Yin, 2002, p.4)

In added essence, the perception of sources of sport confidence was prominently variant existing between high school and college going of masculine and feminine gender. On the basis of the analysis, we may draw the answer that athlete's emotions, levels of cognition and behaviors would further their influence in the levels of confidence. Many of the studies made an indication that the people who have in possession the task oriented traits or function as a task oriented climate would have more self-perception; self-perceived ability and positive emotion. As against athletes who have recognition of their self ability more, this would have a strong influence on the sport confidence. Anyway researches in confidence in sports that have had focal point in the environmental factors and cultures of the organization (example, the variant of perceived motivational climate) were of fewer occurrences. (Desi & Losier, 1999, p.151) few of the studies have made an indication that women are more motivated to participate in sport by intrinsic motives more than extrinsic motives (e.g. Chantel, 1996, p.173) Ryan, Frederick, Lepes, Rubio, and Sheldon in 1997 have made a discovery that other factors play a key role in the variety of sports that an individual takes part in making an inclusion intrinsic motives (Participating in sport to derive satisfaction) and extrinsic motives (participation in sport rewarding). People who are more inclined and oriented to task, or prefer work in a climate of task, valued the participative process (i.e., effort, perfection and learning) more than the result of the competition. (Desi & Perreault, 1999, p.198).

There is a due stress which would have a boosting effect on their sport confidence and the sources of the confidence (Vealey, 1998, p.225) Ryan et al. (1997, p.354) made a research on motivation of the athletes and whether first motivation is indeed forecast adherence to that form of sport. The due reason of their study was to make an exploration of how athletes motives for starting activity in a particular sport associated to his or her adherence to the participation in that particular sport. An important variant was made between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. As discussed in short above, intrinsically motivated behaviors are in performance for the satisfaction of gains from curtailing the activity itself. For Ryan et al., separate persons who were mainly motivated by competence (engaging in exercise to expansion of skills) and enjoyment (the fun desire) are carried out in primary as intrinsically motivated.

As a contrast, extrinsically motivated traits are those traits in performance in order of the rewards and the results that are separate from the behavior as an entity. For their particular analysis, the authors made a consideration of athletes who have motives which are related to the body (a want to improve appearance) to be motivated extrinsically in a primary manner. (Ryan & Bissonnette, 1993, p.601). In general, when athletes start participating during a particular sport, they are deriving high motivation by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. In addition, some sports may be of influence to intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation (e.g., Ryan et al., 1997, p.354). Ryan et al. made a demonstration that different types of sports may draw attraction to variant motivation. During their report, the authors made a discussion of two analyses in an attempt to evidently study them of a hypothesis that motivation initially predicts attendance and sport.

For study one, the collegiate making a join of one of the two physical attributes (i.e., Aerobics and Tae Kwon Do) were made a close observance. Ryan et al. (1997, p.354) made a hypothesis that athletes in these two vicinities of sport would be different in their reasons cited for participation in sports. There was a belief that the aerobics participants would concentrate more than Tae Kwon Do athletes on body related motives, while Tae Kwon Do athletes would make talent and enjoyment in competence related motives more; thus demonstrating that certain sports dwell differently of the different motivations.

Ryan and his colleagues made a sample of forty university students, as well as some of the employees of the university signing up for one of the actions of physical motive that were in offering by the university throughout the terminology. Both the physical activity program was nonchalant in their activities. The range that exists in age for this is eighteen to twenty four years. There existed two groups which were the Tae Kwon Do athletes and aerobic athletes. Each of the groups consisted of sixteen men and eight women. The recreational activities were used for the study, the Motivation for Physical Activity Measure (Ryan et al., 1997, p.354) and dropout and attendance variants.

The motivation for physical activity measure (MPAM) constitutes twenty three items asking an athlete to provide reasons for participating in that sport. Ambiances for participation are made for ratification on a seven point Likert scale, which substitutes the three subscales. The initial subscale is a ten item body related factor (e.g., for instance I want to improvise the body shape), the second is a seven item competence factor (e.g., because I want to improve the existing skills) and the final is a six point enjoyment factor (e.g., because I enjoy this activity). As a contrast, this dropout and attendance variables are rules made to find out when an athlete has discontinuance in a particular sport. Participants for their study were considered and they were dropouts when they did not attend the classes during the first three weeks of the study (Ryan et al., 1997, p.354).

During the start of the study, participants were given a form to fill out a survey which consisted of various questions, concerning demographics, background and initial motives. Participants were also asked to complete a logbook, which contains where and when participants took their attendance at each class throughout the semester. Along with these data, Ryan et al. (1997) made a discovery to support their first hypothesis that competence and enjoyment motives were predictive of stronger adherence and attendance to one's chosen activity, while body related motives were not in association with any kind of adherence. In the second instance, the authors found that Tae Kwon Do Participants were more motivated by intrinsic factors such as competence and enjoyment, as aerobic participants were more motivated by extrinsic factors. In study two, the researchers made an examination of the association between initial reasons for exercise, proceeding responses to exercise, and attendance/adherence. (Desi & Fortier, M.S. 1998, p.88).

The authors made a predication that competence motives would positively predict ratifications of enjoyment and challenge, attendance and greater adherence; while neither of the body associated initiatives would be of prediction to adherence. The study was conducted over a month long period. Registrants of the university at the fitness center were asked to make participation in this study. In a total, there were 155 participants of which 89 were females and 66 were males. Ages ranged from 17 to 39 years. In this particular study, the MPAM test was applied again except with revised questions. The Motivation for Physical Activities Measure Revised (MPAM-R) was made on the basis of pilot testing of items from samples of two universities. From among this, a thirty item questionnaire was made.

Of the thirty items, seven items related to enjoyment, seven items to competence, six items to appearance,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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