Multi Regression Analysis Research Paper

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Multi-Regression Analysis

Children's norm for hand grip strength

Research study involves investigation on hand grip strength in normal children living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.In the study 831 school children, whom 448 were boys and 383 girls whose age ranged from 4 to 15 years participated.

Smedley's hand dynamometer was used to measure grip strength, in addition standardized positioning and instructions were taken into consideration. The children exerted one maximal effort with their right and left hands. The outcome revealed that grip strength scores increased with an increase in age. A difference was realized in right arm or left arm maximum grip strength between boys and girls of the same age groups .Findings showed that right arm grip strength was greater than that of the left for children of the same age. Boys had greater grip strength than girls for the same height or weight, linear regression equation for right arm grip strength vs. body mass index was done.(J.Health Dev 2010:12)

INTRODUCTION

Grip strength measurement is a trouble-free non-invasive test that is characterized by abundant, accurate, and reliable information about changes in the various physiological systems of a person. It assesses the disease status of the patient; it is majorly applied in sports medicine and in foretelling of some diseases like those of rheumatic arthritis.

Muscle physiology revealed the increase in grip strength in the younger age group and a decline in the older age group; in the old the decline was associated with decline in muscle mass.Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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Cardiovascular physiology maintained grip strength was shown to elicit sympathetic stimulation that came up with significant elevation in blood pressure and heart rate. These changes were associated with the release of circulating adrenaline and aldosterone.Grip strength plays important role in assessing the prognosis of fracture, complications after operations and finding out the risk of mortality.

TOPIC: Research Paper on Multi Regression Analysis Assignment

In the scrutiny of high mortality groups, findings shows that those patients who died from acute illness had significant low grip strength score (p<.01) as a matter of fact, a maximum grip strength greater than or equal to five kilograms was found to be the most fascinating and specific cutoff point separating surviving dying patients.

Grip strength measurement has excellent inter-observer and intra-observer reliability; it is reproducible as compared to other evaluation indices which does not have this advantage. The reliability characteristic of grip strength measurement plays a critical role as it is used in the follow up of patients.

Although grip strength measurement is versed with all the mentioned merits it has not been greatly utilized in Ethiopian health system.

The intention of the research study is to come out with base line data on grip strength of measurement. The study aid in answering the following questions:

1. Do grip strength increase with chronological age in Ethiopian children?

2. Do boys have stronger grip strength?

3. Is it true that right arm grip strength is greater in boys than in girls of the same height or weight?

4. What is the linear regression equation of grip strength in relation to body mass index (BMI) in these subjects?

Table 1: "Mean" of maximum hand grip strength by age in school children, Abadria Institute, Ethiopia, 2010.

Age years

Gender

Number

Right Arm Kg

Sx

Left Arm Kg

0.60 1

4.50

.74

11

Boys

49

17.16

0.60

16.60*

0.47

Girls

36

17.08+

0.58 1

5.42

0.62

12

Boys

55

20.49+

0.56

18.99

0.54

Girls

37

20.89

0.77

20.14

0.71

13

Boys

62

24.34+

0.67

23.03*

0.56

Girls

38

22.42

0.80

21.29

0.75

14

Boys

28

31.50*

1.28

30.93*

1.00

Girls

25

23.12

0.97

22.56

0.70

15

Boys

7

34.00#

2.63

32.00*#

2.01

*=p<.05, Boys' grip strength is significantly different than that of girls of the same age.

+=P<.05, Right arm grip strength is significantly different than that of the left arm.

Sx=Standard error #=the value for F. And P, with a one way ANOVA, for each sex and arm is the following:

F (11,436) =110.25, p<01 for Boys Right Arm

F (11,436) =144.24, p<.001 for Boys Left Arm

F (11,374) = 79.56, p<.001 for Girls Right Arm

F) 11,374) = 08.23, p<.001 for Girls Left Arm

Methods used.

Study of site and population

Grip strength measurement was undertaken on school children of Abadria institute, an elementary and junior high school located in the city of Ethiopia .Total population under study was 1200, out of whom 927 students volunteered for the study. Out of these 927 students 96 of them had one or more unfinished data, as a result only 831 children of whom 448 were boys and 383 being girls gave the completed data, there ages ranged from 4 to 15 years.

Anthropometric measurements

In this method of measurement an all metal smeldley's hand dynamometer that has circular meter reading of 1 to 100kg with an indicator needles and grip handle was used. To be able to get accurate results the dynamometer was gripped in the hand at the subjects' side, shoulders adducted, elbow placed at 180 degrees and fore-arm and wrist in same position.

Alternative measurement of right and left hand grip strength done, and single test was used as the grip strength score for maximum voluntary grip contraction of each hand. Other measurement included standing height and weight whereby height was measured using a wooden ruler two meters long that was fixed perpendicularly on the wall. For accurate results subjects were advised to take off their shoes and made to stand straight that their heels and shoulders were being in contact with the wall. Horizontal headboard was brought down to the subjects head.

Table 2: "Mean" of maximum right arm grip strength by height of school children, Abadria institute, Ethiopia, 2010

Height (M)

Boys Grip Strength Sx

(Kg)

Girls Grip Strength Sx

(Kg)

0.90-0.99

8.33*

0.54

6.75

0.42

1.00-1.09

8.19

0.32

9.16

0.47

1.10-1.19

10.23*

0.22

8.92

0.33

1.20-1.29

12.80*

0.44

11.75

0.35

1.30-1.39

14.78*

0.36

13.65

0.43

1.40-1.49

19.18*

0.46

18.00

0.48

1.50-1.59

24.11*

0.59

22.48

0.66

1.60-1.69

30.71*

0.86

26.18

0.98

*=P<.05, Boys' grip strength is significantly different than that of girls of the same height range.

Sx=Standard error

Anthropometrical analysis

This was done where the body mass index was derived from the height and weight measurement.

Data gathering and statistical analysis

Record of name, age, sex, grade, weight, height, BMI, and grip strength of each student was undertaken. Various tests were done which include:

Using a 2 tailed student's t test and comparison of grip strength differences between boys and girls of the same age.

ANOVA test used to test the significance of grip strength across the age range of 4 to 15

Tukey-Kurner Multiple Comparison test to compare a particular grip strength value with all other grip strength values that had been realised.

Instant 2 statistical packages to come up with statistical analysis.

OUTCOME

Fig1.shows the maximum grip strength of right and left arms of school children whose ages range from 4 to 15 years. Findings indicate rampant increase maximum grip strength with age in both sexes ANOVA portrayed the increase to be significant amongst age groups from age 4 to 15 years

Table 3, "mean" of maximum right arm grips strength by weight of school children, abadria institute, Ethiopia, 2010.

Weight (Kg)

Boys Grip Strength Sx

(Kg)

Girls Grip Strength Sx

(Kg)

10-14

8.45*

0.47

7.23

0.38

15-19

9.24

0.26

8.80

0.34

20-24

11.36

0.29

10.88

0.34

25-29

14.24*

0.81

12.73

0.34

30-34

18.69*

0.52

16.37

0.49

35-39

21.57*

0.53

18.23

0.68

40-44

25.05*

0.94

20.83

1.07

45-49

29.78*

1.10

24.36

0.81

50-54

35.75*

1.87

25.75

1.59

55-59

34.5*

2.87

26.5

1.35

*=P<.05, Boys' grip strength is significantly different than that of girls of the same weight range.

Sx=Standard error

Significant difference noted as a result of comparison of each age group with that of age group three years old (p<.06).Another finding is that some boys had greater right or left arm grip strength as compared to girls of the same age (p<.06) this differences was realized at the ages of 4, 6, 7,8,14 for the right arm and at the ages of 7,9,11,13,14,15 for the left arm.

Table 4: Regression equation to estimate right arm "Mean" maximum grip strength from BMI of school children, Abadria institute, Ethiopia, 2010

BMI (Kg/m*m)

Boys Grip Strength (Kg)

Sx

Girls Grip Strength (Kg)

Sx

10.00-10.99

8.5

0.56

7.75

0.74

11.00-11.99

10.18

0.86

9.70

0.81

12.00-12.99

10.55

0.39

9.00

0.70

13.00-13.99

12.74

0.69

10.51

0.57

14.00-14.99

14.28

0.64

12.13

0.61

15.00-15.99

16.15

0.53

12.62

0.48

16.00-16.99

17.82

0.98

15.33

0.57

17.00-17.99

23.08

1.07

16.80

0.88

18.00-18.99

25.00

2.28

24.44

1.14

19.00-19.99

23.13

2.71

22.31

1.38

20.00-20.99

22.69

1.83

Gender Regressions Sy.x r

(Kg)

Boys 1.91B-11.55-1.48-0.95

Girls 1.70B-10.69-2.02-0.90

B=BMI

Outcomes shows that comparison of right arm strength with that of the left arm for the same age group and sex shows that right arm was stronger than left arm. The difference in strength was revealed from ages of 4, 6,7,9,11,12 and 13.

Tables 2 and 3 which showed the grip strength distribution of the right arm when compared… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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