Dissertation: Multiculturalism in Europe With Special

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¶ … Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Reference to Germany

The issue of multiculturalism has been the focus to the political concerns of European nations since nineteen forty five. The problem of multiculturalism covers numerous issues, which predominates differ with different political situations. Multiculturalism mirrors concerns regarding immigration and the manner in which immigrants settled in Western Europe between 1950s and 1960s. Following the break-up of communism in nineteen eight nine, and the rebellion of ethnic nationalism in the Eastern Europe, the problem of multiculturalism centered around devolution of power from central national governments to regionally sub-national groups and the probabilities of power-sharing at the centre. Multiculturalism was also linked to the developing numbers of political refugees, and in the wake of terrorists attacks in New York, and the assertion of American power in the entire world, multiculturalism is concerned with risks posed trough unassimilated groups. Ideals regarding political and legal accommodation of ethnic diversity or multiculturalism surfaced in the West as a channel for replacing order types of racial and ethnic hierarchy with new links of democratic citizenship. Notwithstanding significant proof that these policies are advancing towards the objective of political and legal accommodation of ethnic diversity, some political leaders have declared them a letdown and a precursor to the death of multiculturalism.

The arguments presented in this thesis disputes the misrepresentation of multiculturalism as the gullible acknowledgement of diversity at the expense of handling serious societal issues such as social isolation and unemployment. This thesis documents multiculturalism as the quest of novel links of democratic citizenship, motivated and limited through ideal of human rights. The findings also contest the concept that multiculturalism has succeed or failed because of certain groups of immigrants, and provides proof that policies of multiculturalism have continued and strong, but controversial. The study also ascertains the positive and negative effects of multiculturalism besides disputing the concept that the civic integration policies affect multiculturalism and renders its obsolete.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Chapter One: Introduction

Problem Statement

Objective of the Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Multiculturalism in Germany

Multiculturalism as an Image

The Failure of Multiculturalism in Germany

The Concept of Multiculturalism in Germany

Integration and Culture Shifts

Chapter Three: Methodology

Data Collection

Sampling Procedure and the Study Sample

Data Analysis

Chapter Four: Findings

Table 1: Results linked to Activities

Table 2: Results linked to Attitudes

Chapter Five: Discussion

Perception towards Muslim Immigrants and Integration

Muslim Population in Germany

Multiculturalism and Integration Policy in Germany

Backlash and Retreat on Multiculturalism: The Fear of Muslim Immigrants

The Fear of Muslims Immigrants and Civilization Clash

Multiculturalism and 21st Century Social and Economic Distress

Conclusion

Recommendations

References List

A Critical Study of Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Reference to Germany

Chapter One: Introduction

In every major immigrant receiving nation, the rise in the immigration rate or the proportion of foreign born in the populace over the past decades triggers concerns about the cultural, social and economic adjustment as well as the effect of the immigrants and native populace ( Albrecht 2012, p.363). Integration of immigrants in Europe is the most significant challenge facing the society. This is because of upshots of demographic change. Between 1960s and 1970s, immigrants in Germany were poor migrants from southern Europe who were compelled to move to German by the prospects in the labor market (Gibney 2005, p.443). Over the past years, the ethnic make-up of immigration to Germany has experienced changes and the cultural and geographic gaps amid Germany, the host, and sending nations has increasingly widened.

Germany holds a substantial community of 2nd generation immigrants whose economic and social outcomes and characteristics are debatable. Scores of observers of these occurrence fear that while immigrants integration prospects remain restrained, the danger of augmenting cultural and economic isolation rises, an aspect that sets the foundation for formation of permanent 2nd class citizens (Gibney 2005, p.443). For example, those who took part in the European Economic and Social Committee conference on immigrants' integration stressed on the call for augmented political risks for immigrants besides equal access to health, education and welfare. The Federal Office for Recognition of Foreign Refugee in Germany promotes the societal and social integration of immigrants through fostering integration projects in collaboration with foundations, initiatives, associations and other authorities.

The integration is aimed at communicating norms and values, promoting societal recognition of immigrants besides creating contacts amid natives and immigrants. In 2003, the Germany Ministry of the Interior set aside about one million Euros to cater for integration measures for ethnic Germans and foreigners (Gibney 2005, p.443). Notwithstanding the developing acknowledgement of this occurrence, there has been less systematic empirical study on other dimensions of immigrants' integration into the German society, besides limited research on the potential upshots of divergent policies concerning immigrant's participation in the political process and the society. This deficiency in the literature is because of limited data accessible on the issues of immigration and multiculturalism notwithstanding the developing political significance of these topics. This report highlights some of the concerns on immigration and multiculturalism via the assessment of a distinctive qualitative data set gathered in Germany.

To assess the integration policies of immigrants, subjective data and qualitative data that compared ethnic Germans, foreign immigrants and native Germans of divergent generations were used. The researchers investigated the disparities between these groups with respect to cultural and religious practices, attitudes towards certain life areas and activities (Eckdart 2007, p.240). With respect to attitudes, individual satisfaction and well-being and divergent views in different life aspects were analyzed. Indicators of societal immigrant integration such as language were also assessed. The empirical findings imply that attitudes and activities of foreign immigrants differ from native immigrants compared to the attitudes and activities of ethnic Germans. The attitudes of the 2nd generation immigrants appear to be influenced through a larger extent of pessimism, self-doubt and fatalism while their participation and activities in social life is akin to those of native Germans compared to their parents' generations.

The results of this assessment are relevance to the constant debates concerning multiculturalism not only in Germany, but also in other European nations. This analysis is also significant as it depicts how economic analysis can be expanded to include practical integration policies, capital accumulation, labor shifts and effects of immigrants. This thesis develops some lessons to be discovered from an analysis of community mind-set towards immigration in Germany, and linking these concepts to the problems of immigrations and the immigrant adjustment procedure. The mind-sets of Germans towards immigrants were systematically sought during the study. The information in this study shows how the integration policies have failed with respect to adjusting Turks in the German culture. This paper contributes to a better comprehension of integration process through exploring whether, and to what degree immigrants in Germany integrated into the nations' society.

For thousands of years people have left their motherlands to build their lives in new countries. People leave their native nations for divergent reasons which include social, political and economic factors, most people try to seek for self-determination (Triadafilopoulos 2012, p.121) According to Pierre Eliot, a former Canadian prime Minster, the power of a nation does not only refers to economy or military power, but also open-mindedness and liberality (Weigel 2012, p.1) . However, following the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York, an antipathy against foreigners surfaced in scores of nations across the worlds. The fear of divergent cultures in a country disrupts national engagement and loyalty amid populations in different nations (Weigel 2012, p.1). In the developed countries, immigrants are depicted as low-level community that seeks the benefits of a better social system, and in most countries integration and migration, policies do not play any crucial role (Triadafilopoulos 2012, p.121). On the other hand, immigrants play a key role in their host countries, and some of them hold key roles in a country's politics and economy. As a result, multiculturalism in developed countries instigates high potentials for conflicts, and at the same time pave way for globalization.

Problem Statement

One in every five people living in Germany is an immigrant. The minority community in Germany has increased by over 1.3% last year during a period when the general population of German was dropping (Eckdart 2007, p.233). According to German Federal Statistical Office, the number of persons holding immigrants backgrounds rose by two hundred and sixteen thousand between 2010 and 2011 (Ulrich 2003, p.67). Multiculturalism has been an intensely controversial topic on Germany in recent year's thereby engaging dynamic debate over the integration of immigrants. Many of immigrants moved in Germany from 1960s from Turkey as guest workers. German now holds sixteen million persons with immigrant backgrounds and these people from 19.5% of the country's entire population (Ulrich 2003, p.67). While Germans have find out a significant fellow-feeling with the minority communities given the exploits of outstanding individuals such as Sami Khedira and Mesut Ozil who are football stars from country, there have been increased challenges to the worth of multiculturalism (Stehle & Weber… [END OF PREVIEW]

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