Multiple Intelligence Brain-Based Learning Constructivism Term Paper

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Education - Philosophy/Methodology


Modern Educational Approaches:

American education evolved considerably in the last half of the 20th century and, in general, reflects an attempt to promote learning through specific methodologies based on various different philosophical approaches. Rather than relying on traditional learning models emphasizing factual recall and rote memorization, the more modern education theories incorporate elements relating to concept of academic learning. We have come to recognize a fuller spectrum of different forms of natural aptitudes that comprise a much broader description of intelligence as well as the cognitive mechanisms responsible for human learning.

This new perspective about learning has led to the growth of several educational approaches designed to maximize their potential contribution. Within that overall framework, each of the new educational approaches emphasizes different essential components that distinguishes from one another. While all of the modern philosophies contributes to the betterment of education, ultimately, it is the educator's responsibility to incorporate particular elements of each to formulate a method for their effective implementation into the classroom. Constructivism:

The constructivist approach to education is founded on the principle that the process of active involvement and reasoning is more conducive to academic learning than passive absorption of subject matter content (Adams & Hamm 1994). Instead of relying on traditional lecture-based lessons provided by instructors for passive consumption and later regurgitation after memorization by students, the constructivist method emphasizes the fuller involvement of students in the form of active analysis and participation. Specifically, the constructivist method presents subject matter content in lesson modules designed to allow students to participate in the active reasoning process of answering questions that highlight the lesson content rather than merely presenting the information through traditional lectures (Schroeder & Spannagel 2006). The constructivist approach may also incorporate active learning materials, particularly (but hardly exclusively) in the sciences, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS) program that provides traditional texts that correspond to practical materials intended to facilitate learning through hands-on application of subject matter presented in the learning module (Huber 2001).

Multiple Intelligences Approach:

Howard Gardner of Harvard University's School of Education pioneered the Multiple Intelligences constructivist approach to modern education in conjunction with which he founded the Gardner School in Vancouver, Washington. The fundamental theory proposed by Gardner is that human learning relies on a much broader range of behavior than those emphasized in traditional educational programs. Specifically, traditional education emphasizes only linguistic abilities and quantitative logical reasoning while, for the most part, ignoring the potential for learning represented by five other types of cognitive learning; namely: bodily-kinesthetics, spatial orientation, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and musical abilities (Gardner 1999).

According to Gardner, traditional education overemphasizes linguistic and quantitative abilities while neglecting the needs of students whose greatest potential for learning relates to the other five natural abilities. His education program provides instruction along the full range of all seven of the natural abilities identified by Gardner.

The most untraditional aspect of Gardner's program is the degree to which it integrates non-traditional activities (such as athletics and outdoor exploration) within the actual academic curriculum rather than as supplemental recreational activities (Gardner 1991).

The dual purpose the Multiple Intelligences theory of education is to inspire both short-term academic achievement through learning as well as a long-term orientation on the part of students that is more conducive to reaching their full educational potential, especially with respect to students whose greatest natural abilities lie outside the two types of learning emphasized by traditional education programs to the virtual exclusion of the other five. Brain-Based Approach:

The Brain-Based approach to education focuses more on providing an external environment conducive to the mechanics of cognitive learning than on the actual subject- matter content of the lessons themselves. Whereas Constructivism in education addresses the difference between active and passive learning and, in the case of the multiple intelligences version of constructivism, emphasizes the different types of intellectual abilities, the brain-based concept relates primarily to the educational environment.

Specifically, brain-based educational programs provide a learning environment designed to stimulate learning by incorporating elements of physical comfort and individual preferences such as background lighting and other aspects of mood associated with cognitive efficiency (Forgary 1997). Brain-based classroom… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Multiple Intelligence Brain-Based Learning Constructivism.  (2008, May 2).  Retrieved December 12, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Multiple Intelligence Brain-Based Learning Constructivism."  2 May 2008.  Web.  12 December 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Multiple Intelligence Brain-Based Learning Constructivism."  May 2, 2008.  Accessed December 12, 2019.