Music on Grocery Store Shopper Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2573 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Music  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Times will be recorded in the total number minutes per visit. It is expected that findings will indicate longer stays for the group that shops with music. Data will be cross-tabulated according to male vs. female. In addition it will be cross-tabulated according to the type of music being played. Sampling will be conducted over a period of two weeks. Data from different days of the week will also be cross-tabulated. These cross tabulations will serve the purpose of identifying confounding variables that may be present. Data regarding the total volume of sales during the collection period will be obtained from management to determine if the amount of total sales volume reflects an increase during music periods as opposed to non-music periods. This data will not be used in conjunction with time data, as it involves total store sales and does not relate specifically to the sample populations.

Limitations of Study

As this study involves no interaction with the subject and is purely observational in nature, there are many questions regarding the sample population that will not be known. These items could be to our benefit in some cases. For instance, the sample will be random and the selection of using first through the door choosing a chopping cart, This eliminates sampling bias. Sampling at different times also eliminates bias due to the fact that a wider variety of demographic groups will be included. For instance the week day group is likely to include more housewives and moms, whereas weekend shoppers are expected to be more of a mix.

There is a potential for variations in precision due to the time that the researcher first begins to record the begin and end times. This is highly subjective and could be a source of error. It is expected that the observations will be random and that the researcher will make an attempt to be consistent in their observations. Begin and end times are expected to be accurate to within one minute. It is expected that time periods will be sufficiently long enough to reduce the implications of this potential source of error.

It is expected that the error contained in this study will be minimized by the measures intended to reduce or eliminate them. Observational studies are inherently subject to less biases than more controlled studies, due of the randomness of the subjects involved. Cross tabulation will identify many biases that may be present. Additional sampling may be necessary if it is found that sufficient biases are found that could potentially effect the results and conclusions drawn. Many of the potential biases found in this study can be corrected by increasing sample size. There are two potential sources of error in this study, sampling error and sampling bias. Measures will be taken to eliminate and reduce both of these types of errors.

Implications of Study

This study will add to the wealth of information already in existence regarding the atmosphere and music played in service industry settings. Grocery shoppers are differentiated form shoppers who engage in more recreational shopping in that many come with a list and a purpose. It will be interesting to see if the results of this study support the result obtained in department store and restaurant settings. It may be that grocery shoppers act differently to emotional arousal than do recreational shoppers. It will also be important to note whether the shoppers spend more when the music is on. One factor that will not be measured in this study is whether the music makes shoppers stick to their list, or whether they buy other items that were not on the original plan. This could be a potential for further research.

The results of this research will help store manager and marketers to increase sales by manipulating the atmosphere in their stores. The research will be non-intrusive and is not expected to effect actual sales or store functions during sampling times. There are many other studies that could arise from this one. The types., speeds and other properties of music could be studied to determine which type of music would be most appropriate to the grocery setting. These factors have been studied in other research. However, it is not known if they are applicable to the grocery setting. This research will help to develop marketing strategies particular to the grocery industry.

This research will help grocers to hone their sales techniques and to increase the profitability of the company for which they work. It is expected that sales figures will show an increase in sales during the music sampling periods. It is not expected that there will be vast differences in the types of music, but that there will be a significant increase between music and non-music sampling periods.

APPENDIX I

Sampling Permission Letter

Name of Person

Name of Grocer

Contact Person

Name of Researcher

APPENDIX II

Data Collection Sheet

Sample Session Begin

Sample Session End

Type of Music (Discography)

Subject Description

Begin Time

End Time

Total Minutes

Notes

APPENDIX III

Time Table

Task

Expected Completion date

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Draft of Final Report

Final Report Completion

References

Alpert, J.L., & Alpert, M.I. (1990). Music influences on mood and purchase intentions.

Psychology & Marketing, 7, 109-133.

Areni, C.S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on shopping behavior. Classical vs. top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer research, 20(1), 336-340.

Caldwell, C., and Hibbert, S. (2002) The Influence of Music Tempo and Musical Preference on Restaurant Patron's Behavior. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 19(11): 895-917 (November 2002)

Gorn, G.J. (1982). The effects of music in advertising on consumer choice behavior:

classical condition approach. Journal of Marketing 46, 94-101.

Kellaris, J.J., & Kent, R.J.(1991). Exploring tempo and modality effects, on consumer responses to music. Advances in Consumer Research, 18(1), 243-248.

Kotler, P. (1973). Atmosphere as a marketing tool. Journal of Retailing, 49, 48-

Milliman, R.E. (1982). Using background music to affect the behavior of supermarket shoppers. Journal of marketing, 46(3), 86-91.

North, A.C. Hargreaves, D.J., & McKendrick, J.(1999). The influence of in-store music on wine selections. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(2), 271-276.

Park, C.W., & Young, S.M. (1986). Consumer response to television commercials:

The impact of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation. Journal of Marketing Research 23, 11-24.

Smith, P.C., & Curnow, R. (1966). "Arousal hypothesis" and the effects… [END OF PREVIEW]

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