Mustalahti, K., et.al. ). Gluten-Free Research Paper

Pages: 11 (3660 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 11  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Disease

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In untreated CD, the most important factors that influence individual perception of health are the lessening of symptoms and being able to eat a normal diet. For all patients with physical or psychological symptoms, there were vast improvements using a GF diet. This research focused more on quality of life issues that were standardized based on a Health-Related Quality of Life and GIQLI (Gastrointestinal Quality of Life) index system. Because of these standardized scales and the number of responses, the data is more appropriately extrapolated.

Ciacci, C., et.al. (2002). Psychological Dimensions of Celiac Disease. Digestive Diseases and Science. 47 (9): 2082-87.

Many diagnosed with celiac disease also report critical emotional issues the longer they live with the disorder. Many find that there is continual fear and anxiety about a relapse, many find sorry and embarrassment with dining with friends or family, and many express anger at the fact that they have celiac. Adults (n=114) responded to self-administered questionnaires that evaluated the patients' level of knowledge of the disease and the impact of the diagnosis on their lives. Interestingly, quality of life and adherence to a GF diet correlated directly to the socioeconomic level of the patient, with those with higher incomes finding ways to be more compliant. The research is sound and paves the way for further demographic/psychographic studies.

Gainer, C. (2011). Celiac Disease: Helping Patients Life Gluten Free. The Nurse

Practitioner. 36 (9): 14-19.

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While not a research study, this is an important overall viewpoint and guideline / template on practical measures for nurses and doctors to help patients with celiac disease find a positive way to live gluten free. There are several suggestions and checklists to help the patient, particularly regarding nutritional deficiencies. The article was a good overview, but likely needs a bit more buttressing with academic evidence.

Leffler, D., et.al. (2008). Factors that Influence Adherence to a Gluten Free Diet

Research Paper on Mustalahti, K., et.al. (2002). Gluten-Free Assignment

In Adults with Celiac Disease. Digestive Disease Science. 53 (1): 1573-81.

The only treatment available for celiac patients is a life-long commitment to a gluten free diet. Factors contributing to adherence, though, are not well researched. A special questionnaire was developed and administered to 154 adults who had celiac disease and who then had a standardized gluten free diet evaluation by an experienced nutritionist. The primary issues for non-compliance were having other food allergies, concerns over cost and/or exposure, perceptions about a gluten free diet, and the ability to follow this type of diet regardless of mood or stress. Additional research is necessary to more fully correlate demographics and psychographics with non-compliance and to provide reasonable alternatives for adults to consider regarding adopting a specialized diet for their condition.

Marnett, L. And Dubois, R. (2002). COX-2: A Target for Colon Cancer Prevention.

Annual Review of Pharmacological Toxicology. 42 (1): 55-80.

Numerous studies have shown that NASIDs not only help with anti-inflammatory properties, but may have preventative effects for certain cancers. Specifically, the COX-2 enzyme has been shown to mitigate precancerous growth in patients with a high-probability of gastrointestinal issues. While there are issues surrounding long-term use of NASIDs, many including gastric upset, there are certainly ways to minimize negative effects. This may particularly be true for celiac patients on a GF diet, especially since they may be more susceptible to the osteo and cardiac effects of long-term NASID usage.

Mazzone, L., et.al. (2011). Compliant gluten-free children with celiac disease: an Evaluation of psychological distress. Pediatrics. 11 (46): 2-6.

Often, children with chronic diseases have increased risks for psychological and emotional issues. This study used several standard psychological questionnaires to evaluate differences in psychological profiles between celiac and non-celiac children with a mean age of about 10. The subjects with celiac reported a higher rate of anxiety and depression compared to the control subjects. The celiac patients also more difficulty in social situations, particularly those involving food. The research suggests that the increased rate of psychological problems in patients with celiac emphasizes the importance of early detection and intervention (psychologically) for these children.

Mustalahti, K., et.al. (2002). Gluten-Free Diet and Quality of Life in Patients

With Screen-Detected Celiac Disease. Effective Clinical Practice. 5 (3):

105-13.

Many people who are screen detected with celiac disease never have severe symptoms, or if they do, they are minor. For most people, though, the prescribed treatment of a gluten free diet has important quality of life concerns. This study evaluated 40 patients with variable levels and severity of celiac. The intervention was an explanation about a gluten free diet by a physician. The study found that a gluten free diet was associated with improved quality of life and now that there are more opportunities to shop for gluten free products, concerns about the overall burden of such a diet may be unfounded.

Roma, E., et.al. (2010). Dietary Compliance and Life Style of Children with Celiac

Disease. Journal of Human Nutrition and Diet. 23 (1): 176-82.

It is difficult to motivate many adults to comply with a gluten free diet to mitigate their celiac symptoms; and far more difficult to motivate children, especially at school or out with friends. This study evaluated 73 children with a median age of 9.4 through questionnaires completed by their parents. The study found that most children who did not comply with a GF diet did so because of poor taste, dining outside the home, and a lack of products. The research suggests that there needs to be a more concerted parental effort to help children comply with a GF diet that will improve their quality of life.

B3.2 -- Each author presented compelling evidence that the only solid and scientifically proven way to control celiac disease is through a very strict gluten free diet. All research presented verified evidence that those individuals who actually eliminated all glutens from their diet were able to alleviate the physical symptoms, as well as improve their mental state and quality of life.

B3.3 -- Questionnaires were the tool of choice for each of the research study. Since the authors were trying to determine three major issues (physical health, mental health, and adherence to a GF diet), the authors chose to trust questionnaire data. Most of the authors, though, used basic statistical techniques to validate answers.

B3.4 - Each research study used varying types of questionnaires: self-administered or filled out by parents or caregivers. This gives a clear indication of trends, but may not always be inclusive or totally accurate in each situation. With additional time and funds, a more quantitative approach to specific types of GF diets, as well as greater specificity in GF products used might be more helpful. Additionally, most of the studies used fairly small sample sizes. Broadening the sample demographically and geographically might also help glean additional insights into the relationship between certain personal attributes, physical and psychological health, and a GF diet.

B4 -- Celiac disease is also known as gluten intolerance. It is a disorder that affects about 1 in 133 Americans, with symptoms of diarrhea, weight loss and malnutrition to more serious gastrointestinal disorders. Typically, the disease affects those of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it may also affect Hispanic, Black and Asian populations that have been living in the West for generations. Those individuals affected tend to suffer damage to the intestines from specific food-grain antigens that are found in wheat, rye and barley (Leffler).

Based on the research, the only medically acceptable treatment for celiac disease is a continuous 100% gluten-free diet. While this is far easier in the 21st century in the developed world than ever before, most patients report that they need the support of a doctor and staff to better understand ways in which they can cope with the disease (Bebb). Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet allows the intestines to heal which leads typically to a resolution of most symptoms and eliminate the heighted risk of colon cancer. Consultation with a trained dietician is usually necessary to help patients find ways to eat a complete diet and remain healthy. Until recently, though, the diet was cumbersome, and failure to comply resulted in not only a recurrence of physical symptoms, but of psychological issues as well (Casellas). Persistent symptoms often include mouth ulcers, osteoporosis, diarrhea and irritable bowels which follow through with an increased rate of anxiety, fatigue, depression and musculoskeletal pain. However, in almost every research case, a gluten free diet not only alleviated the physical symptoms, but in as little as a week's time, mitigated the psychological factors and increased the quality of life in patients of all ages (Mazzone; Bongiovanni). Each article under consideration used self-administered questionnaires either directly to patients or by parents. There is a danger to this type of research, even if statistical analysis is used to validate trends, that data may not be as objective as it would be if measured by an objective party. While each article suggests a similar finding, e.g. The improvement of both physical and mental symptoms from… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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