Naloxone Prescription Education and Application Research Proposal

Pages: 16 (4906 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 9  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Health  ·  Written: February 22, 2019

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Some of the approaches include standing orders in which pharmacists have the leeway to offer the drug under the order of prescriber, collaborative agreements by pharmacists; in which pharmacists have the permission to manage the medication on behalf of the prescribing agent and other requirements of regulation (Green et al., 2015). More laws with the objective of reducing the number of death incidents resulting from the overdose of opioid have been formulated. Moreover, the privilege and trusted access to individuals who use drugs offered through the programs is essential as the epidemic of opioid is increasingly dominated by access to illicit opioid as opposed to prescribed opioids.Young adults between the ages of 18 and 25 are the age group with the highest number of illicit use of opioid over the past year. Adults from the age of 26 onwards show the greatest use of the drug on prescription in the population.The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services information shows that many of those who report prescription opioid abuse in the current groups started their use when they were in their early 20s. Such a development may demonstrate why the prescription opioid related mortality affects adults between 25 and 54 disproportionately (CDC, 2018). The full effect of prescription opioids in public health is made complicated by the fact that heroin is increasingly available. Heroin is not as expensive as prescription opioids. The fact that many people who develop OUD from prescribed opioids resort to heroin makes the situation worse.

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Historical and Societal Perspective

Research Proposal on Naloxone Prescription Education and Application Assignment

It must be appreciated that severe pain that is constant has the potential of breaking even the most determined of people. However, we are commonly ready to provide liberal quantities of narcotics when drug addiction, in itself, is a dangerous stumbling block. Surgeon Warren Cole, 60 years ago, explained such a state of affairs about cancer pain, in a book. In the 70s, the dilemma by Cole was experienced in many doctors’ offices and emergency wards across the US landscape. Nurses and physicians were trained to offer minimal amounts of opioids to patients in pain. They administered such doses and even lower than the prescription unless in cases where death was about to happen. Studies showed that chronic pain had been underrated acutely. Part of the reason for underrating of pain was because of the special emotional effects that affect the rational use of the drug. Kathleen Foley (at Memorial- Sloan-Ketering Cancer Center, NY) from a group of pain management experts saw the restriction towards opioids as awkward. Two influential articles were published by Foley in 1981 and 1986. He noted that there was a low incidence of addiction in a small group that consisted of both cancer and non cancer victims. The articles alongside a letter with one paragraph in 1980 showed that addiction was not common among in-patients. It became a delicate campaign, for 20 years, for the use of opioids for the long term, in non cancer pain, steered by Foley and her close team member Russel Portenoy. Foley observed that there was no long term data that was published that showed high rates of addiction among patients. There had not been any long term controlled research of opioids for pain that was chronic. For many chronic pain patients and physicians, the view that long term opioids had the potential for safety and that there was no problem for patients to be trusted to be in charge of their own prescriptions was a welcome idea (Meldrum, 2016).

The best alternative to opioids known, thus far, is a multidisciplinary approach that involves reliance on psychological therapies such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, relaxation, coping with pain and self hypnosis. Although such approaches can succeed, a lot of third party players view them as too expensive. Insurance policy coverage is normally insufficient, and only the main medical outlets can back such programs. Less than 200, 000 patients participate, currently, in multidisciplinary treatment. But among pain management experts, still, many people challenged the view that therapy for chronic opioid use was safe. It signals to the progressive incidence of addictive conduct. The debate caused a continuous and serious fracture in the field. Many people that championed liberalized opioid treatment for chronic pain have retracted their argument. They admitted that their view led to the abuse that was not anticipated. Nevertheless, as the Center for Disease Control points out in their guidelines, patients experiencing severe chronic pain still need opioids. Thus, physicians will be expected to prescribe it, although they will have to be more cautious (Meldrum, 2016).

The sum of societal cost for opioid abuse in 2007 was found to be $ 55.7 billion. Lost productivity at work contributed $25.6 billion. The cost of health care was $ 25.0 billion while the costs for criminal justice stood at $ 5.1 billion. The lost productivity at the workplace contributed 49.9% of the sum of societal costs. Premature death made up the largest part, accounting for $ 11.2 billion (43.8%). Lost wages and absenteeism was the next pair of the most costly components. They contributed $ 7.9 billion and 2.0 billion American dollars respectively. Medically linked absenteeism and the cost of incarceration accounted for amounts that could be compared: $1.8 billion which represented 7.1%. Excess costs of disability $ accounted for $ 807 million. Opioid abuse patients accounted for 64.5 %. They also accounted for 90.1 % of absenteeism that is medically related and costs related to disability. Care givers contributed the remainder (35.5 and 9.9%) The cost of healthcare contributed to about $ 25 billion which represented 44.9% of the whole societal cost. In the latter, costs for excess medical supplies and drugs were the central contributors standing at $ 23.7 billion. Out of the whole set of correctional facility costs; two thirds were met at the state level. The outcome of the analysis document is that the growing issue of prescription opioid abuse puts a significant economic… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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