Narcoterrorism Threat in California Thesis

Pages: 10 (2900 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Terrorism

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] This research harnesses the crime-terror continuum created by Tamara Makarenko (2004, 129). It also showcases certain similarities and dissimilarities of narcotics trafficking and terrorism as a means of offering a more intricate perspective on the concept of narco-terrorism. In this manner, the article will evaluate the perspective on the concept of narco-terrorism and create a new approach in dealing with this issue.

One of the strengths of this research is pinpointing the harm of transferring resources from the War on Drugs to the war on terror. This leaves many people in the anti-drug campaign largely unprotected. Bjornehed (2004) capably explains how the needed balance needs and may be achieved.

A too strong focus on narco terrorism will not contribute to any total victory in either

the war on drugs or the war on terror and an effort should be made to include all areas of anti-drug and anti-terrorism measures to achieve the long-term objective of minimizing these threats.

The journal article, "Transnational Terror and Organized Crime: Blurring the Lines" by Thomas M. Sanderson, looks at how the global war on terrorism has constricted the flow of financial support to terrorists (2004). As a consequence, terrorists moved deeper into activities of organized crime. This research looks at how terrorist groups are becoming closer partners with organized crime syndicates and how these threats to the U.S. And to other countries becomes more and more aggravated.

Sanderson (2004) discourses on a "lethal cocktail," a mix of one part criminal, one part terrorist, and one part corrupt state. The collaboration presents as a truly formidable challenge to America and to global interests. It requires greater adaptability on the part of law enforcement in responding to their tactics (Sanderson, 2004). This research consistently and powerfully demonstrates how much improvement is necessary to law enforcement in the fight against these threats. Law enforcement simply has to adapt its tactics to the threats in convergence and separately.

Similarly, in "Links Between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of Narco-Terrorism?," Alex Schmid (2004) explores the connection between terrorism and drug trafficking. At the same time, he describes some of the more compelling evidence on the simultaneous presence of armed conflict and terrorism with the cultivation and processing of narcotic drugs. Interestingly enough, Schmid (2004) rejects the connection and convergence between terrorist groups and organized crime. Instead, he explores the reasons

…which might tempt and restrain groups of one type to establishing connections with groups of a significantly different mindset. He finds that the 'in-house' development of organized crime activities by terrorist organizations is a more imminent problem than a close alliance or convergence of organized crime and terrorist organizations.

This paper aptly recommends that the Palermo Convention against Transnational Organized Crime be harnessed more effectively. This is to prevent terrorist organizations from gaining financial resources that are necessary to launch and maintain terrorist campaigns (Schmid, 2004).

The Narcoterrorism policy of the United-States (Dolan, 2005) acknowledges how drug trafficking has become a more aggravated source of funding for terrorist organizations. It furthermore recognizes how this led to the merging of U.S. policies against drugs and terrorism. This merger, in turn, produced remarkable contingency factors.

As a result, a relatively coherent nexus now exists between the United States'

antinarcotics and antiterrorist policies.

Thus, Dolan attempts to explain the contingency factors that evolved from this convergence (2005). At the same time, his work offers an analytical perspective on the U.S. narco-terrorism policy and its repercussions. Essentially, while all of Dolan's assessments are solid, they do not provide sufficient actionable intelligence.

This paper also examines the research conclusions that were reached by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in the article, "The Threat Posed from the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drug Trafficking and Terrorism" by Frank Cilluffo. It focuses on how the war on drugs has driven America to confront the real threats posed by terrorist groups and comparable organizations in an unconstructive manner. Cilluffo (2000) emphasizes that:

The major tactical shift that needs to occur in combating organized crime and terrorism is a move to a 'campaign' strategy. As with any campaign, and articulation of objectives, interests, and goals are required. All aspects of the effort need to be coordinated with these points in mind.

Cillufo (2000) recognizes how focusing on individual busts has created a situation where low-level participants fill prisons with a negligible impact on the industry. Cillufo pushes for a 'string them along' approach, rather than a 'string them up' approach. The latter requires a higher level of interagency cooperation along with massive adjustments within the culture of law enforcement. Interestingly, Cillufo argues that:

Part of the solution is strengthening the domestic legal institutions and social organizations in the afflicted countries. The United States cannot solve the problem itself. We must provide them with the tools to help themselves. It must enlist the help of the legitimate institutions in countries where the problem is rife. The institution building must be transparent to the public in order to foster trust among the indigenous population. Without strong judicial systems, effective law enforcement and prosecution of criminals and terrorists is impossible.

This is a far more nuanced approach to the issue at large and offers a more realistic and multi-faceted method to a solution.

Law enforcement initiatives against drug production, sales and use have intensified with the increase and expansion of resources for the drug war (Benson 2008, 5). Statistics reveals that drug arrests declined in the late 70s, up in 1982, slightly down in 1983 and went up again continuously from the middle to the end of the 80s. Arrests were highest in 1989. For two years, arrests went down before rising rapidly again in 1992. It exceeded the 1989 accomplishment and peaked again in 1997. Following the erratic rise and fall, drug arrests continued to fluctuate every year until 2002. Rapid increases were again recorded for 2003 and the current escalation persisted through 2006. The author discusses the aspects of this continued escalation in drug enforcement. The first explains how it began and persisted from the 1991- 92 trend. The second presents and analyzes important but unexpected aftermath of the escalation.

Likewise the article, "From Pablo to Osama: Counter-Terrorism lessons from the War on Drugs" by Michael Kenney shows us that a victory in the war on drugs cannot be achieved by intelligence, law enforcement and military efforts by themselves (2003). The same goes for the war on terror. Alasting victory will only be achieved if leaders move beyond a strategy that is based on interdiction and comparable "supply-side" initiatives. The author stresses the importance of using more diplomatic resources to fight the "demand side" of terrorism.

In addition to that, this paper also reviewed the article, 'Financing Terrorism by Means of Drug Trafficking', written by Alexandru and Christina Ionas, which is a part of the book Legal Practice and International Laws by Cristinel-Ioan Murzea and Angela Repanovici'. In this article Alexandru and Christina have discussed the manner in which the illicit drug trafficking practices are used by the terrorists to fund their activities.

The authors have suggested that,

Drug trafficking represents one of the most important threats to modern society.

Usually terrorists are constant seeking ways to finance their illegal plans and expensive attacks through illicit means such as drug trafficking. By these means the society, the health of its citizens and also its serenity is being affected by drug trafficking, and by the chaos that terrorist attacks induce.

It has also been suggested by Ionas & Ionas, (2011) that illicit drug trafficking cannot be eradicated from society if all the focus is placed on system issues, policies, licensing and reporting requirements. This is because all these factors are associated with the systems of the disease. The authorities, however, are required to address the issues that lead towards an increase in the need of drugs within a society. The authorities shall, therefore, indulge in practices that minimize the requirements of drugs within a particular economy or society. The authors, however, reached the conclusion that drug trafficking is not one of the most powerful sources of funding for the terrorists. Instead, both the illicit drug traffickers and terrorists use separate means for funding their activities. (Ionas and Ionas, 2011)

This paper has also examined the research 'The Role of Drugs in Terrorism and Organized Crime', which was [END OF PREVIEW]

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Narcoterrorism Threat in California.  (2014, September 30).  Retrieved December 19, 2018, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/narcoterrorism-threat-california/3932350

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"Narcoterrorism Threat in California."  30 September 2014.  Web.  19 December 2018. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/narcoterrorism-threat-california/3932350>.

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"Narcoterrorism Threat in California."  Essaytown.com.  September 30, 2014.  Accessed December 19, 2018.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/narcoterrorism-threat-california/3932350.