Navy an Historical Account Research Paper

Pages: 8 (2436 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Military

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Of course, the U.S. had attempted to an isolationist veneer -- but the Navy, now an entity that could determine its own course -- had other plans: the naval strategy between the Wars was one of growth, and growth was to be achieved by bringing together three key points: "The first of these was War Plan Orange, which provided the rationale for a big navy. The second was the concept of the 'balanced fleet,' which served as the best available compromise of competing perspectives and interests within the navy. The third was the concept of the 'treaty navy,' which provided public justification for naval growth."

No longer were presidents necessary. Naval power was a force unto itself -- and Pearl Harbor allowed that force to be given public approval. The U.S. entered WWII on the heals of the Japanese attack and "in less than four years, that Navy made itself mistress of the world's seas and expanded to become the greatest maritime force ever created."

The shipyards were busy from 1940 to 1945 producing over one hundred thousand naval vessels -- everything from aircraft carriers and battleships to destroyers and submarines: in 1945, the Navy "bought more fuel than any other agency in the world."

Here was one reason Eisenhower could look back and decry the military-industrial complex. Washington could not have envisioned such a thing. Jefferson, had he envisioned it, would have recoiled in horror. By 1950, the MIC was a part of American life.

Indeed, Eisenhower had "watched Truman make concessions to the Navy in order to get it to support the unification of the armed services under the Department of Defense."

Defense was now something that had to be placated, nudged along, cajoled. It was an engine of power -- and it only intensified during the Cold War aftermath that followed WWII. The Navy continued to employ the best technology and continued to figure into global conflicts.

The Modern Navy

With America coming out on top at the end of the Cold War and the Soviet Union crumbling into pieces, the U.S. Navy could now focus on other objectives. The Gulf War conflict which allowed the Navy to send Tomahawk cruise missiles into Iraq was one such new opportunity. Since 9/11 the U.S. military has once again expanded itself, and the Navy has found itself once again locked in on the Middle East. Just exactly who is in control of the conflict and why is still up for debate in the eyes of some members of the public. Those who object to militarization, however, must answer claims that the Navy is at its smallest size (quantitatively speaking) since WWI: it has in its service under 300 ships. Still, to speak of the modern Navy quantitatively is to leave out a vast amount of the picture: qualitatively the Navy is more advanced than ever. Its capabilities allow it to do more with less.

With Operating Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom and the War on Terror, the Navy continues its service on the behalf of the United States. The anti-Imperialists are still protesting, of course, just like they were a century ago -- but the Navy today, as it was a century ago, does not necessarily serve the interests of that portion of American. Business is war, and war is business -- and where there is one, there will be the other; there will be, specifically, the U.S. Navy.

Conclusion

In conclusion, what began as a small fleet attempting to assist in the war for Independence gradually became the most powerful naval power in the world. The history of the United States Navy is one of technological transformation (from sail to steam to nuclear) accompanied by economical, political, and social interests that steer foreign policy in the direction of war.

Bibliography

Baer, George W. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: the U.S. Navy, 1890-1990.

Stanford University Press, 1996.

Dorwart, Jeffery. The Philadelphia Navy Yard: From the Birth of the U.S. Navy to the Nuclear Age. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Hearn, Chester G. Navy: An Illustrated History: The U.S. Navy from 1775 to the 21st

Century. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2007.

Horwath, Stephen. To Shining Sea: A History of the United States Navy, 1775-1998.

University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Jarecki, Eugene. The American Way of War: Guided Missiles, Misguided Men, and a Republic in Peril. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

Miller, Nathan. The U.S. Navy: A History. Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Rose, Lisle Abbott. Power at Sea: The Age of Navalism, 1890-1918. Columbia, MO:

University of Missouri Press, 2007.

Sweetman, Jack. American Naval History: an Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy

Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2002.

Stephen Horwath, To Shining Sea: A History of the United States Navy, 1775-1998 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1999), 5.

Ibid, 6.

Ibid, 7.

Ibid, 7.

Nathan Miller, The U.S. Navy: A History (Naval Institute Press, 1997), 13.

Chester G. Heam, Navy: An Illustrated History: The U.S. Navy from 1775 to the 21st Century (St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2007), 16.

Ibid, 16.

Ibid, 17.

Jack Sweetman, American Naval History: an Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2002), 23.

Lisle Abbott Rose, Power at Sea: The Age of Navalism, 1890-1918 (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2007), xi.

Ibid, 8.

Jeffery M. Dorwart, The Philadelphia Navy Yard: From the Birth of the U.S. Navy to the Nuclear Age (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 114.

George W. Baer, One Hundred Years of Sea Power: the U.S. Navy, 1890-1990 (Stanford University Press, 1996), 119.

Ibid, 182.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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