Nervous and Digestive Systems Term Paper

Pages: 4 (1168 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 13  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Anatomy

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Some reptiles, such as lizards or snakes, swallow their prey whole, which led to a specific adaptation of the salivary glands. Some of these contain enzymes which help moisten the prey for swallowing. On the other hand, especially for venomous snakes, some of the salivary glands have in time transformed into venom glands and seldom play a role in the actual digestive process. In the case of such reptiles, the upper and lower jaws are mobile in order to increase the dimension of the oral cavity through which the pray has to pass

The esophagus is longer in the case of reptiles that swallow the prey without masticating it. In the case of crocodiles or turtles, for example, the requirement of a long esophagus is no longer necessary. The peristaltic movement helps move the prey towards the stomach, which is generally a j-shaped organ.

The stomach provides the main digestion location in the case of almost all the reptiles, which is quite similar to what happens in the case of higher vertebrates. In the case of reptiles such as snakes or lizards, the food arrives practically whole in the stomach, although it has been shown that the enzymes do work their way as the food is passed downwards to the stomach. The stomach in the case of such reptiles contains a lot of enzymes, but also a high concentration of acids, most notably concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the case of crocodiles or tortoises, the food is already masticated and practically turned into much smaller and easier to digest pieces.

The food then passes into the small intestine, with the three main regions, the duodenum, the ileum, and jejunum

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. The liver and the pancreas are also part of the digestive system and participate in the digestion process.

The birds and the reptiles are the only vertebrates to have the cloacae chamber, the removal system of the body. As a complex accessory, the cloacae performs three different functions, each represented in a different compartment.

The coprodaeum is where the faeces is discharged, "the urodaeum receives the urogenital tract ducts, while the proctodaeum acts as a common collecting area prior to evacuation"

Term Paper on Nervous and Digestive Systems at Assignment

Bibliography

1. Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html

2. Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet at http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/terry.derting/cva_atlases/Stephsnake/snakepage3.htm

3. Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38471& query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38471& query=brain& ct=eb

Wyneken, Jeanette and Mader, Douglas R. Reptilian Neurology: Anatomy, Function and Clinical Applications.

Ibid.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service. On the Internet at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=38474

Ibid.

Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html

Digestive System of Snakes Class Reptilia Order Squamata. On the Internet at http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/terry.derting/cva_atlases/Stephsnake/snakepage3.htm

Adaptive Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System of the Lizard. On the Internet at http://137.222.110.150/calnet/irish_cal/exotics/reptiles/lizards/digestive%20system.html [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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