Term Paper: Neurological Disorder Epilepsy

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[. . .] In some particular complicated cases, the lack of full standardization (devices, methods, etc.) also make difficult confrontation of two or more different cases, methods, devices, which ultimately reduces the extent of efficacy of this treatment for epilepsy.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of epilepsy tends to be a treatment which involves no side effects. It can work even if it is not beneficial in reducing the seizure frequency among patients. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as CBT can be combined with pharmacological treatments for attaining gainful results among patients suffering from severe epilepsy syndromes. This however requires a close collaboration between epileptologist and psychotherapist (Ramaratnam et al., 2008).

After having an idea about three major ways of treating epilepsy, one needs to approach psychological therapies first for epilepsy treatment during the initial stages. Severe cases can either opt for a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment or resort to epileptic surgeries. However, the use of AEDs for epilepsy treatment requires careful monitoring and understanding of dosage requirements in accordance with the symptoms encountered by the patient.

Some More Treatments for Epilepsy

Apart from the above mentioned core treatments for epilepsy; following are some more simple and effective ways of curing epilepsy.

Kitogenic Diet

Kitogenic diet is based on the principle that fasting results in the reduction of seizure frequency. Kitogenic diet involves the intake of high fat, low protein and high carbohydrate diet which simulates the effect of starvation while giving the patient adequate nutrition. This actually results in the burning of fats and increases the number of ketones which ultimately prevents the nervous system from being irritated. Kitogenic diet includes the intake of eggs, heavy cream and butter; vegetables with little sugar, such as cabbage, celery and broccoli; fish and shellfish such as shrimp and tuna; and limited amounts of meats like hamburger, chicken and bacon. It does involve some side effects like weakness and kidney stones, thus it requires strict monitoring by the medical staff and adherence as well (Huffman & Kosoff, 2006).

Exercise and Meditation

Moderate exercise on daily basis is immensely fruitful in reducing epileptic symptoms as it helps in better circulation of blood to the brain. Exercise tends to be an excellent way of managing stress which eventually leads towards the reduction of seizure frequency. However, people having hyperventilation history, need to be careful while exercising and should opt for light aerobic exercises.

Apart from exercise, some meditation techniques can be instrumental in improving EEG reading through the regulation of breathing and ultimately reducing stress as well. Consequently it helps a great deal in the reduction of seizure frequency (Ramaratnam et al., 2008).

Light Therapy

Light therapy is another treatment used for epilepsy patients. This treatment hypothesises that exposure to a light box soon after waking influences seizure thresholds and reduces seizure frequency. Light boxes are also commonly used to treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Recommendations

The analysis of various treatments for epilepsy has made me opt for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to be the most appropriate, effective and harmless treatment for epilepsy patients of all kind. CBT tends to be the most effective long-term treatment for anxiety. Medications can temporarily reduce the physical manifestations of anxiety, but they do not stop the destructive thought processes that cause anxiety to begin with. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy works by focusing on one's thoughts rather than outside factors and people. It caters with a cost effective way of working on one's own choice of improving life and does not even involve any side effects. If CBT is not going to benefit a patient, it is not even going to harm them. This tends to be the core benefit of CBT which makes it a superior treatment for epilepsy from my perspective. The combination of CBT with epileptic medications can also bear fruitful results in severe cases.

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which comprises of a series of seizures affects one's ability of movement, speech, vision, awareness and muscle control. Seizures are considered as the only and most common symptom associated with epilepsy. Usually seizures make people fall to ground, stiffen out their muscles, causes muscle twitches and make one lose consciousness. The most common treatment for epilepsy is cognitive behavioral therapy revolves around identifying the triggers causing seizures. It works by reducing anger and depression among patients and changing their way of reacting towards situations. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is considered as the mainstay of treatment of epilepsy yet it involves certain drawbacks which involve enzyme induction and aggravation of seizure cases. Thus, AEDs need to be recommended by considering seizure type, adverse-e-ect pro-le, and patient-speci-c features which comprise of age, sex (with special reference to childbearing potential), and comorbidities. EEG biofeedback is another treatment technique for epilepsy which implies the use of operant condition for reduction of seizure frequency. However, this methodology fails in severe cases, e.g. patients with selected cognitive disorders, consciousness disorders, psychical disorders, etc. CBT tends to be the most appropriate and cost effective solution for the treatment of epilepsy as it does not involve any side effects. It caters to curb the core causes leading patients towards negative thoughts, which cannot be achieved by any medicine. Light therapy, kitogenic diet and several exercises and meditation technique also provide effective treatment techniques for epilepsy.

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf

Perucca E. & Tomson T. (2011). The Pharmacological Treatment of Epilepsy in Adults. Lancet Neurol, 10(5). Pp. 446-456, Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511198

Ramaratnam S, Baker, GA, &Goldstein, LH. (2008). Psychological Treatments for Epilepsy.

Cochrane Database System Review (Online). 16(3). Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646083

Schmidt, D. (2009). Drug treatment of epilepsy: Options and limitations. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 15. Pp. 56-65. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/7705/Papers_11/Ward_Melissa_Drug_Treatment_of_Epilepsy.pdf

Sterman, MB. (2010). Biofeedback in the Treatment of Epilepsy. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine. 77(3). Pp. S60-7, Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622079

Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, DC., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K.,& Kaiser, DA

(2009). Meta-analysis of EEG Biofeedback in Treating Epilepsy.Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. 40(3). Pp. 173-179. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19715180 [END OF PREVIEW]

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