Neurological System the Nervous Essay

Pages: 3 (1269 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Disease

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Depression of certain neurotransmitters, namely, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and monoamines have shown to cause depressive symptoms. Also a polymorphic variant of the serotonin receptor has also shown to play a role in depression. Individuals homozygous with the s variant of the allele, encoding for this receptor, have shown to have a two fold risk of developing major depression in response to a stressor. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

Typical symptoms of Major depressive disorder include: depressed or irritable mood, loss of interest, significant weight loss or gain (> 5%), sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, poor concentration and recurrent thoughts of death and suicide. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

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1) Traumatic injuries to the brain can be either direct (coup) or indirect (countercoup). The clinical manifestation differs with the type, site and severity of injury. Focal injuries of the brain are because of direct damage, or hematomas (epidural, subdural and subarachnoid) that produce pressure symptoms. In cases of direct damage, for example in gun shot wounds, there will be motor, sensory and cranial nerve impairment of functions that correlate with the site of injury. Pressure symptoms include nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, papilledema and focal impairment of function. Manifestations of diffuse brain injury can range from mild impairment, confusion and momentary amnesia to loss of consciousness and severe neurologic impairment. Subarachnoid hemorrhage also produces signs and symptoms that mimic meningitis. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

Essay on Neurological System the Nervous System Assignment

2) Multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are both hereditary and autoimmune in nature. MS, however, is a disorder of the myelin sheath, whereas ALS affects the motor neurons. Lesions of MS are mostly in the white matter of the brain, whereas in ALS, it is in the motor neurons of the brain and in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. The mean age of onset of disease in MS is at 20-40 years whereas the onset of ALS is usually after the age of 50. In MS, almost any neurologic dysfunction can occur, whereas ALS only affects the motor component. Progression to death is faster in ALS as compared to MS. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

3) Seizure disorders in children can result from structural brain abnormalities or from prenatal or peri-natal insults. Examples include prenatal infections and perinatal birth asphyxia or trauma. Structural abnormalities of the brain in a nenonate can be a result of perinatal infections, tumors or vascular malformations. The most common seizures in children are febrile seizures that occur due to high grade fever. In cases of focal lesions of the brain, seizures are usually complex and focal. Simple seizures can occur due electrolyte imbalance or birth injury due to neonatal jaundice or asphyxia. These seizures are generalized and last for shorter periods of time, and disappear when the cause is eliminated (if the cause is reversible). Seizures are controlled with drugs, such as diazepam and phenobarbitone. Long-term management includes eliminating the cause. In case of recurrent seizures, long-term treatment on drugs is indicated. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

4) Childhood CNS tumors can be classified as supratentorial or infratentorial. Names of supratentorial tumors are craniopharyngiomas, astrocytomas, optic nerve gliomas and ependymomas. Infratentorial tumors are more common. They include cerebellar astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, ependymomas and brainstem gliomas. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

5) Spondylosis, spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis are part of the degenerative disk disease. Spondylosis is degenerative osteoarthritis of the center of the spinal vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis, on the other hand, is a displacement of one or more spinal vertebrae and spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal. All three conditions lead to nerve impingement, thus producing similar symptoms. They differ only in the management. (McCance & Huether, 2010)

REFERENCES:

McCance, K., & Huether, S. (2010). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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