Term Paper: New Pattern of Integration

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[. . .] No European country is larger than the usual midsized globally accepted state but their strength has been in the closely integrated political and economic collaboration which has helped European nations maximize their global authority and prospective. As a former Prime Minister of Netherlands explains that the European states have no choice but to cooperate under the EU governance or they will be forced to act individually and find their own footing in the global world (Wim Kok, 2004).

Evolution and Growth of EU

Between the years 1973 and 2004, as explained above, the EU increased from six member states to a large number amounting to twenty-five members (Table 0.2 below). This as explained before led to the expansion of functions and treaties. However, it is important to note here that not every one of the brand new newcomers shared the founding member states' resolve for the promotion and sustenance of political integration. For instance, some of the new member states, like Denmark, Britain, and Sweden, chose to be freely skeptical of political integration policies that were being implemented and were also averse to discussing other encompassing aspects like the minimum quantity of sovereignty essential to attain the generic and basic economic objectives. The succession and inclusion of a lot of participant states, because of the increase in functions, perspectives, interests and preferences, was one of the major reason why the overall process was even more complicated than before and hindered the primary aim to attain political integration in Europe. Additionally, it further introduced policy differentiations towards the EU, probably the most striking example being the choices made by Denmark, Britain, as well as Sweden to not adopt the euro as the national and dominant currency (Dinan, 2005). The table below (as cited in Dinan, 2005) shows the enlargements of the European Union over the years, since its inception:

Source: (Dinan, 2005)

Major treaty alterations in a brief history from the EU, like the Single European Act of 1986, summarized the symbiotic character of the increase in functions and members. This is also true from the Constitutional Treaty, which had been passed by the member states and the national leaders in the year 2004. The Constitutional Treaty came from the need to boost the authenticity and effectiveness from EU, most famously due to the imminent succession and inclusion with a minimum of ten participant states. The Constitutional Treaty isn't necessarily the final stage of the reformation of treaties within Europe, however it streamlines the EU's currently signed treaties as well as the "pillar" organization (See box 0.1). It further enhances decision-making methods, and stresses on the political stance and trait of the European Union (Dinan, 2005).

Source: (Dinan, 2005)

The EU has consistenly evolved and finally arrived at the stage where it touches upon almost every factor of public policy and includes nearly all the European countries. Iceland, Switzerland and Norway would be the only European nations which are neither the Community members nor anxious to join the ECU. Using the adjective "unequivocally" is perhaps the best way to describe the intention of these nations and it also highlights the primary problems that EU has to deal with on a regular basis. Some of these problems include: the problem of determining which nations from the EU's eastern edges are "European" and for that reason qualified to become listed members on the EU (supposing they satisfy the criteria for it). The EU has recognized Turkey's "European traits," despite common concerns in most of the existing member states with the cultural structures of the country in addition to economic impact of Turkey's membership. However the primary concern still remains to be the extenet to which EU can physically expand (Wim Kok, 2004)

The all-encompassing characteristics depicted from the EU in the past pose a difficult obstacle for potential member states. Indeed, the popularly known sections where the applicant states know that they have to compromise in order to be part of the ECU are guided by the all-comprehensive policy remit presented by the European Union (Dinan, 2005).

In spite of (or possibly due to) the relatively rapid rise in its policy and physically political scope, all isn't well within the EU. Aside from concerns about sluggish economic performance, worldwide terrorism, and also the integration of racial minorities, and of the common complaints with regards to politics and political figures, the masses are not comfortable using the services and implementing the policies of EU. A couple of are outright local aggressors and externally opposing parties, want that their states to leave or the European Union to no longer function as an integration framework (Financial Times, 1992)

Typically, Men and women discover the EU's political pretentiousness to be somewhat agitating and annoying and would really like the EU to provide more (especially when it comes to the opportunities for stable vocations, local and national security, economic growth and stability) while at the same times be far less dogmatic (Wim Kok, 2004).

The EU is really a complex political system, difficult for interested member states to comprehend without thorough knowledge of it practical application. It's both pervasive (in the impact) and remote (in the policymaking). There's an excess of knowledge about the EU but a deficit of understanding. EU leaders are acutely conscious of the requirement to create a better connection between your EU's member states and it is institutions. People within the EU grumble in regards to a democratic discrepancy, yet they come out for direct elections towards the European Parliament in record low amounts. Additionally they complain about insufficient transparency in the city, although EU political figures and authorities took huge strides toward making the entire administrative machine more open and accessible (Financial Times, 1992).

The issue lies partially within the novelty and scope of the European integration initiatives. Member states understand their regional and national government authorities, which have been in existence for a very long time. People inside a national political system speak exactly the same language, browse the same news links, and prefer to watch exactly the same television programs. By comparison, the EU is secluded, formal, and works within a framework of twenty official languages. Furthermore, there's no concept or feeling of European "people." Instead all members are commonly referred to as European "peoples" without any single format of language or the media. The main problem also is based on the politics of European integration. National political figures prefer to go ahead and take credit when situations are running smoothly within the EU and blame "Brussels," which is the basis for all workings of the EU, when situations are going badly (Financial Times, 1992 Dinan, 2005).

Opinion polls constantly reveal that most member states appreciate the actual benefits of European integration but they are uneasy about certain EU guidelines and developments. Many member states either don't know or have forgotten the lengths from which Europe originates to where it ends for the past century. Irrespective of the extent of the member states' knowledge of it, some of them would continue to reason that the EU has outlived its effectiveness (whether it ever endured any). Undoubtedly, some EU guidelines and programs are dispensable or unnecessary. However, European integration appears more valuable than ever before at any given time of rapid globalization and common global uncertainty. Exactly the same need for stability, security, financial and economic growth that initially forced the founders from the European Community to support the formation of the EU exist today, although the regional and global conditions are significantly different (Box 0.2 as in Dinan, 2005).

Summary of European Integration underneath the Lisbon Strategy

European integration has largely managed to stay connected through having a specific working method. This method is normally referred to as the "Community method." It's characterized by some elements that vary from traditional types of worldwide cooperation: transfers of forces in the member states towards the EU; the central role of the supranational organ -- ECU Commission, within the preparation of Community guidelines; the potential of qualified and common administrative tasks; the implementation of binding regulations, whose relevance is controlled through the Commission; and, also the energy from the European Court of Justice to appropriately reprimand the violations of the established Community law. Each one of these elements, which symbolize and correspond to different yet important exceptions towards the principle of national sovereignty, have introduced the city model nearer to the federal structures of government (Cappelletti et al., 1986). Although the presence of other working techniques continues to be recognized, their importance continues to be reduced. The establishment of intergovernmental "pillars" within the regions that apply ECU-set foreign policy strategies, judicial structures and internal matters through the Maastricht Treaty has largely been viewed as an anomaly, which time should be able to revert to normalcy (Denhousse and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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