Essay: New Reference Is Not Required. A Total

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New reference is not required. A total of 15 references are needed

Baroque architecture from the late seventeenth century onwards was fully determined by the cultural interests of the Christian churchs, whether Catholic or Anglican. It was an expressive form designed to counteract the Reformation view of simplicity. As part of the counter-Reformation, the Baroque was reactionary and wished to reassert the dominance of the church through the display of florid, dynamic, and powerful forms that would move its audience to recognize ecclesiastical power. To this end, it invented a style based on curves and emotionality, eliminating a more linear and transcendent style common in Roman predecessors which was meant to replicate harmony and peace. The Baroque wanted noise and dynamism.

Out of this cultural requirement, the unique form of the risalit was used to build facades. This changed design, support planning, and material strength (Cohen). Room designs were altered to allow impressions of greater space and more curving shapes. The technology used to do this was not radically different, although some new mechanical devices might have been used along with innovative techniques in brick manufacture and laying (Marconi).

In addition, the Baroque both reflected and amplified the rigid social structure, which combined with global changes in finance and commerce to create a desire in the new rich to exert their power through building and to gain power using building (Houston and Snell).

During this period, European culture experienced the Scientific Revolution. This rational and empirical shift away from recognized authority had profound implications. The changes brought about in scientific methodology and modes of reasoning with Bacon and Descartes had a formative impact on Newtonian natural science. The laws of nature started to be explained, beginning with the mathematical formulation of the theories of gravity, motion, thermodynamics, and entropy. The development of algebra and logarithms alongside the establishment of heliocentrism and technological advances in calculators, microscopes, telescopes, and other tools allowed nature to be viewed, described, and understood in unprecedented ways.

As such, the Scientific Revolution and the construction that typified it represent a supreme irony. The zeitgeist during this time period was one in which the prowess of man was displayed through a newfound appropriation of concepts and notions that were secular and not related (for one of the few times in history) to the presence of an ecclesiastical figure. However, virtually all of the most noted construction projects during this time were for religious purposes. A median between this dichotomy may very well exist, however. As many of the major churches erected during this time unequivocally reflected the financial standing and influence of the Christian religions they served (Hersey), one may argue that such structures more reflected the pride of man than the God they were purportedly created for.

More importantly, the principles of science that this period produced actually influenced construction technology and principles of engineering in particular. Much of the science during this era was actually based on the Aristotelian tradition (Grant). Newton's theories into the law of motion placed an emphasis on the structuring of materials while his advancements in calculus influenced the field of mathematics (Stilwell 159). Bernoulli's theorems were relevant to concepts of geometry and equilibrium that were essential to design and construction efforts. Bernouli worked with Leon Euler on a theory related to the principles of structure (Heymen 69). Additionally, Euler himself worked on a formula to assist engineers with elements of compression (Bradley and Sandifier). All of these scientific application helped to separate notions of building technology from architecture, as engineers became more absorbed with the former (Cohen).

These principles of geometry are exceedingly palpable in the efforts of Boromini in the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Like most Baroque architecture, this church purposefully avoids the straight lines and classical appeal of the designs popularized during the Italian Renaissance for a symmetrical, ovular shape that presents a number of curving, swirling patterns (Francesco Borromini and His Architecture). The intricacies of these designs were emphasized by the limited space the architect had to work with due to the church's diminutive size (San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane). As is typical with most Roman Baroque efforts the roof of this structure is capped with a dome -- although Borromini chose an elliptical one to emphasize the presence of more elliptical designs as well as to provide the central source of lighting in the edifice (San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane). The highly ornamented church also featured a number of symbolizes from classical Roman buildings, to reinforce the notion that it was created in the Roman Baroque style.

Another chief characteristic of Scientific Revolution architecture (and that of the Roman Baroque style in particular) was its deliberate purpose to invoke a spaciousness and enormity of dimensions that was indicative of the power of the Catholic Church that was dominant throughout parts of Europe at the time. There are several aspects of St. Peter's Square that are in alignment with these architecture principles, such as its ovular design and open space. The colonnades found on the outskirts of the square itself were quite common in Baroque architecture, and helped to emphasize the immense sizes that architects sought after. Additionally, this work was indicative of much of the Baroque work reared during this period in that it represented a restoration effort -- specifically to attempt to provide a degree of decoration and ornamentation for the area that surrounded St. Peter's Basilica. As such, its architect -- Bernini -- was circumscribed in what sort of effects he could produce (St. Peter's Square). For instance, he produced an immense amount of detail in his limited space, which included the erection of 140 statues of religious figures created by the designer and his students (St. Peter's Square)

Generally speaking, however, despite the Scientific Revolution that occurred at the same time, construction technologies did not change much in the Baroque period. This can be explained by a cultural lag. The scientific changes were so important that it took years to ingest their significance fully. As a result, the impact occurred later, during the Industrial Revolution. This is not to say that Baroque buildings did not reflect the historical conditions of the time. Christopher Wren's St. Paul's Cathedral (1667 -- 1711 AD) clearly represented a logical Baroque worldview. Both the interior and the exterior of this structure are large and "imposing" (St. Paul's Cathedral); one of the considered designs was to shape the structure similar to a cross. The sheer size of the structure helped to allude to the affluence of the Church of England that commissioned it and paid for it in part with the levying of taxes (Beard 25). It had been damaged and refurbished several times previously before Wren was able to restore it (St. Paul's Cathedral). Unlike Roman Baroque architecture, that of the English Baroque style was not quite as curvaceous, and more reflected some of the symmetry that was popularized during the Renaissance. A critical component of St. Paul's Cathedral was the crowning dome, which helped to underscore the might of the Church of England and which is similar to that found on St. Paul's Cathedral -- although the former is made of three layers, as opposed to the two in the latter.

Another work of architecture that alludes to the grandeur and largess with which buildings were designed during this period includes the Palace of Versailles, which was long considered a model royal residence (Palace of Versailles). Its influence extended beyond France to other imperial palaces throughout Europe (Baroque Architecture).

Industry 5. Conclusion (Please help to add 900 words)

Please use existing references from sections 1 to 4. New reference is not required. A total of 20 references are needed

The cultural changes during the nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution were perhaps more than in any previous era forces for change in construction technology. The way things were built was irrevocably altered as a result of the wholesale societal changes that took place, spurred on by new forms of social organisation, scientific thought patterns, and commerce (Landow). The critique of received authority which began in the Scientific Revolution came to fruition during the Industrial Revolution and its building programs. It is arguable that this was the most important era in the history of human work and building because of the realisation of new designs, new materials, and new practises made possible through mechanisation and mass production.

The two main cultural forces during this time were capitalism and urbanisation. Capitalism was linked with a global system of colonialism, made possible through Renaissance exploration. The Europeans had sailed all over the world and set up colonies and shipping networks, often violently and exploitatively, which had introduced new types of products, a new wealth, and a new political power into Europe. By nature, the capitalist system is expansionist. It seeks new markets and new ways to find cheap labour and transportation. During the Industrial Revolution capitalism underwent its greatest expansion and became the sole viable form of economic exchange in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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