Discussion and Results Chapter: New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications

Pages: 18 (5019 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Education - Computers  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] 22

0.18

0.12

Evidence

15

0.21

0.29

0.12

0.75

0.22

0.02

0.08

0.14

16

0.31

0.33

0.35

0.71

0.14

0.06

0.16

0.22

Economic Growth

17

0.12

0.08

0.32

0.09

0.70

0.08

0.08

0.04

18

0.15

0.12

0.21

0.11

0.76

0.12

0.05

0.09

19

0.22

0.14

0.14

0.06

0.76

0.14

0.14

0.11

20

0.32

0.22

0.19

0.15

0.78

0.22

0.16

0.06

21

0.15

0.23

0.22

0.04

0.89

0.23

0.18

0.05

Implementing Internationally

( Urgent Timing)

29

0.01

0.07

0.19

0.34

0.16

0.86

0.33

0.05

30

0.05

0.08

0.33

0.42

0.19

0.77

0.27

0.04

31

0.18

0.03

0.27

0.26

0.22

0.85

0.12

0.08

*V1 National security, V2 criminal investigation, V3 Combat terrorist, V4 Evidence, V5 Economic Growth, V6 Implementing Internationally (Urgent Timing)

The results from Table 8.4 and Table 8.5 indicate that all factor loadings were larger than 0.70%, which represented acceptable factors and items. This indicates that the factor structure was sufficiently well designed and explained.

Table 8.5

Factor Loadings -- Two Variables for Obstacle telecommunication interception and access law in Jordan

Cost

21

0.05

0.16

0.18

0.19

0.15

0.22

0.78

0.17

22

0.14

0.18

0.26

0.22

0.12

0.41

0.79

0.41

23

0.28

0.06

0.42

0.31

0.09

0.23

0.87

0.36

Privacy

24

0.04

0.09

0.34

0.27

0.19

0.23

0.15

0.89

25

0.19

0.33

0.38

0.22

0.11

0.15

0.06

0.88

26

0.21

0.37

0.22

0.18

0.06

0.14

0.09

0.75

27

0.06

0.12

0.24

0.26

0.22

0.09

0.22

0.71

28

0.15

0.18

0.26

0.28

0.25

0.11

0.17

0.87

*V 7 Cost, V 8 Privacy

Cronbach's coefficient alpha was employed to measure the reliability based on the internal consistency of the mean or average correlation for each item in the scale with other items. Factor analysis was applied directly to the correlation matrix of the original variables of the data set in order to generate first-order factors. A factor analysis was applied to the matrix of correlations among the first-order factors in order to generate second-order factors. Table 8.6 shows the number of items, from the total of 32 items in the questionnaire, that cluster under each of the first-order and second-order factors. Each Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the items and the factors is shown in Table 8.6. According to Leech et al. (2008, 2005), Cronbach's coefficient alpha should be above .70%. As shown in Table 8.6, all of Cronbach's alpha values in this research were satisfactorily above the requisite level thereby indicating satisfactory levels of internal consistency of the questionnaire.

Table 8.6

Reliability Statistics

Factors

(First and Second -- Order Factors)

# of Items

Cronbach's Alpha (?)

National Security

Implementing

4

0.960

Criminal Investigation

6

0.921

Combat Terrorist

2

0.929

Evidence

2

0.864

Economic growth

5

0.891

Urgent Timing

4

0.923

Cost

Obstacle

3

0.841

Privacy

5

0.844

Factor analysis was conducted in this research to examine the underlying structure for the 32 items related to implementing telecommunications access and intercept, and related to obstacles of implementing telecommunication interception and access. The variables are national security, investigation of crime, counter terrorist, legal evidence, economic growth, privacy, and cost. In this analysis, factor1 is implementing telecommunications interception and access law internationally, and factor 2 is telecommunication interception and access law in Jordan. The items measure the variables thought to contribute to adoption or rejection of a telecommunications regulatory framework, including those items that provide a comparison of an international telecommunications regulatory framework.

Eight variables were identified to focus on the attitudes of government officials to the implementation of the telecommunications interception and access law and insight into their orientation toward the design of such laws. These variables are shown in Table 8.7. Two variables were identified to focus on the perceptions of citizens in Jordan regarding human rights and privacy issues related to implementation of telecommunications interception and access law. These variables are shown in Table 8.8.

Table 8.7 presents the rotated factor loadings for the Jordanian and international considerations of telecommunications regulatory frameworks, and Eigenvalue, and percentage of variance. The eigenvalue for the factors in Table 8.7 is 1.055, sufficiently above the requisite 1.0 to warrant analysis. Factor 1, which is the perceptions and attitudes of respondents related to implementing telecommunication interception and access, accounts for 6.525% of the total variance. Table 8.7 illustrates the result of the rotated factor loadings which define a number of distinct clusters of interrelated data.

Table 8.7

Factor Loadings for implementing Telecommunication Interception and access

Factor

Item

Factor Loadings

Eigenvalue

% of Variance

1

2

3

4

5

6

1.055

6.525

National Security

4

0.89

5

0.87

6

0.91

7

0.88

Criminal Investigation

8

0.73

9

0.72

10

0.87

11

0.82

12

0.86

13

0.86

Combat Terrorist

14

0.86

15

0.89

Evidence

16

0.75

17

0.71

Economic Growth

18

0.70

19

0.76

20

0.76

21

0.78

22

0.89

Urgent Timing

23

0.86

24

0.77

25

0.85

*1 is National security, 2 is criminal investigation, 3 is Combat terrorist, 4 is evidence, 5 is economic growth, 6 is Implementing internationally (Urgent timing)

The results indicate that all factor loadings were larger than 0.70%, which represents acceptable factors and items. Moreover, the design for factors and items was consistent with the findings from stage one of this research.

Table 8.8 presents the rotated factor loadings for the Jordanian and international considerations of telecommunications regulatory frameworks, and Eigenvalue, and percentage of variance. The eigenvalue for the factors in Table 8.8 is 2.338, well above the requisite 1.0 to warrant analysis. Factor 2, which is the perceptions and attitudes of respondents related to the obstacles of implementing telecommunication interception and access, accounts for 15.232% of the total variance. Table 8.8 illustrates the result of the rotated factor loadings which define a number of distinct clusters of interrelated data.

Table 8.8

Factor Loadings the obstacles of implementing Telecommunication interception and access

Factor

Item

Factor Loadings

Eigenvalue

% of Variance

1

2

2.338

15.232

Cost

26

0.78

27

0.79

28

0.87

Privacy

29

0.89

30

0.88

31

0.75

32

0.71

0.87

*1 is Cost, 2 is Privacy

All factors and items had satisfactory alpha values that were higher than the advised 0.70% established for exploratory research. Based on the findings of these tests, it was concluded that the items and factors in the research met the various criteria for evaluation and further analysis, and demonstrated consistency with the conventions for applied factor analysis research.

Of the two factors, factor 2 is shown to be the most highly loaded and be characterized by stronger relationships to the variables. From the seminal research on factor analysis, this statement about factor loading is relevant. "It would seem that in general the variables highly loaded in a factor are likely to be the causes of those which are less loaded, or at least that the most highly loaded measures -- the factor itself -- is causal to the variables that loaded on it"[footnoteRef:2] (Cattell, 1952, p. 362). [2: Cattell, Raymond B. Factor Analysis. New York: Harper Brothers, 1952.]

Respondent reliability was estimated by using the questionnaire items and the factor scores. Three hundred and sixty-eight respondents from five different categories of telecommunications stakeholders participated in the survey research. A total of 250 members of the Jordanian Bar Association and the Judiciary were labeled JBA. Twenty-seven respondents from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission were labeled TRC. A total of 20 individual parties interested in human rights in Jordan were labeled HR. A total of 60 officials were placed in the category labeled GID which drew from the General Intelligence Department, the Public Security Directorate, and the Independent Anti-corruption Commission. The category labeled JBL and representing Jordanian business leaders numbered 11. In all, 368 respondents completed the survey and were placed in one of the five categories.

8.4 Pearson Correlation Coefficient

In this research, reliability was analyzed through use of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The Pearson's Correlation Coefficients were calculated across all questionnaire items for variables 1 through 6 (national security, criminal investigation, combat terrorists, evidence, economic growth, and implementing internationally) for the following pairs of respondents by title: (JBA & GID), (JBA & HR), (HR & GID), and (TRC & JBL).

The correlations between (JBA & GID), (JBA & HR), (HR & GID), and (TRC & JBL) for each of the scored factors and items related to implementing variables are presented in Table 8.9.

Table 8.9

Pearson Correlation Coefficient between Items Across Sample Groups

(Implementing Variables)

Variable

Items

JBA & GID

JBA & HR

HR & GID

TRC & JBL

Correlation

Correlation

Correlation

Correlation

V 1

0.745

0.895

0.982

0.920

0.765

0.862

0.782

0.799

0.892

0.798

0.985

0.866

0.843

0.874

0.882

0.872

V 2

0.879

0.878

0.865

0.984

0.789

0.879

0.972

0.985

0.897

0.856

0.892

0.856

0.999

0.897

0.980

0.990

0.975

0.942

0.830

0.880

0.984

0.978

0.834

0.998

V 3

0.876

0.876

0.891

0.856

0.783

0.937

0.955

0.977

V 4

0.896

0.978

0.834

0.947

0.788

0.952

0.856

0.658

V 5

0.856

0.876

0.988

0.975

0.822

0.778

0.849

0.998

0.733

0.888

0.910

0.897

0.911

n/a

0.850

n/a

0.875

0.856

0.992

0.987

V 6

0.955

0.830

0.970

0.834

0.990

0.834

0.957… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

?
Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 18-page paper:  $28.88

or

2.  Buy + remove from all search engines
(Google, Yahoo, Bing) for 30 days:  $38.88

or

3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)

or

4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Designing a New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications Interception and Access in Jordan Multiple Chapters


Designing a New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunication Interception and Access in Jordan Conclusion Chapter


Designing a New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications Interception and Access in Jordan Multiple Chapters


Telecommunications Law Thesis


New Generation Technology Research Proposal


View 93 other related papers  >>

Cite This Discussion and Results Chapter:

APA Format

New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications.  (2011, April 22).  Retrieved May 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/new-regulatory-framework-telecommunications/1981320

MLA Format

"New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications."  22 April 2011.  Web.  20 May 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/new-regulatory-framework-telecommunications/1981320>.

Chicago Format

"New Regulatory Framework for Telecommunications."  Essaytown.com.  April 22, 2011.  Accessed May 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/new-regulatory-framework-telecommunications/1981320.