New World Order Thesis

Pages: 7 (2289 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Literature - Latin-American

Globalization expands and accelerates the exchange of ideas and commodities over vast distances…[and] often appears to be a force of nature, a phenomenon without bounds or alternatives. But peoples' movements have shown that it is neither unalterable or inevitable."

-- Global Policy, 2009

The old cliche "It's a small world…" has never been more true than today. Because of the technology (Internet and digital technology) revolution, live instant satellite broadcasts from anywhere in the world, international cell phone service and global markets opening up to all who care to access them, the world is, relatively speaking, a smaller place. With that shrinkage of time and space, and the immediacy of communication, new realities and a new world order are part of today's business and government agenda. This paper delves into several components of the new globalization dynamics, not all of which are ideal for every nation involved in globalization -- and This paper also reviews the scholarship and investigations in the literature.

Thesis Statement

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If nations, leaders, business interests, independent entrepreneurs, and others reach out to others in the world community with honesty and productive ideas, every culture in the world can benefit. But if globalization means that the industrial nations use their power and influence to better only themselves and shut out the developing nations, the millions of people who are now desperate for clean water, dependable food sources and healthy environments will become even more desperate. It is the point-of-view of this paper that globalization offers a golden opportunity for those who have plenty to reach out to those in need. Whether it be purely a profitable business opportunity, a trade relationship that benefits both partners, or an interaction of cultures, the health of people all over the world, and their standard of living, can be raised to a higher level with global dynamics playing an important role.

The Literature

Thesis on New World Order Assignment

The morality attached to globalization: Dr. Ahmet Mentes writes in the Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, that globalization has "broadened the meaning and the scope of social responsibility for companies" (Mentes, 2010, p. 130). He emphasizes that the European Union Commission defines social responsibility as including the "social and environmental expectations of the society in their economic activities" (p. 130). Mentes asserts that there are "classical and modern approaches" to economic / social responsibility. In the classical approach, managers and executives of companies answer only to the interests of their shareholders. The author alludes to the late and well-known economist Milton Friedman who believed in the classical approach; that is, a company has "only one social responsibility…the profit maximization" (p. 130).

However, the modern social responsibility approach in a global economy argues that "the economic system functions best when companies take responsibility to solve the problems of the society" (p. 131). In fact Mentes goes farther in his assessment of the need for social responsibility -- insisting (p. 131) that "Companies' survival depends on their harmony with the society that they operate within." Indeed, "price and quality are loosing their power as elements of competitive advantage" in the global environment companies operate in. What is taking the place of "price and quality" is a company's ability to create a "effective, strong and long-term image via social responsibility" (p. 131).

If a German company, for example, is desirous of creating a good image in Thailand, German business executives won't have to search very far for the principles that embrace human rights, labor standards, environment and anti-corruption. It is in the United Nations Global Compact (p. 132). There are ten Human Rights principles in the Global Compact, and for the purpose of this paper, they will be shortened.

ONE, internationally proclaimed human rights should be respected and supported; TWO, companies should not be "complicit" in abuses of human rights; THREE, freedom of association should be upheld and the right to organize (unions) should be respected; FOUR, forced and compulsory labor are prohibited; FIVE, child labor must be abolished; SIX, discrimination in terms of employment and occupation must be eliminated; SEVEN, environmental challenges must be met with "a precautionary approach"; EIGHT, initiatives to promote "greater environmental responsibility" are urged; NINE, technologies that are "environmentally friendly" should be developed and encouraged; and TEN, businesses should fight corruption (extortion and bribery especially) (Mentes, p. 132).

While it is impressive that as of June 2009, 5,415 companies doing business internationally have signed onto the Global Compact, Mentes bemoans the fact that 30% of those companies "are either in non-communicating or inactive participant status" (p. 134).

The pure economics attached to globalization: Meanwhile the debate centered on the relationship between government size and economic development is one of the issues reviewed in an article in the journal Public Choice (Bergh, et al., 2010). The reason this debate is important is because a large country with a big government "can use economic openness and sound economic policies to mitigate negative effects of big government" (Bergh, p. 195). In other words, China -- with one of the largest economies in the world -- as a trade partner for African countries (relationships that China has developed aggressively over the past few years) could be open, honest, and socially responsible to negate the negative implications of its colossal clout.

However, other points in this article include: a) that there is a "negative effect" in terms of economic growth on a global scale when a government taxes its citizens heavily; b) the freedom to trade internationally is strengthened (according to the "Economic Freedom Index") by robust government growth. And so the point of these statements about taxes and government growth in this article are there because businesses can "use economic freedom and globalization to compensate for the growth-impeding effects of big government" (Bergh, p. 197). What the authors want readers to understand vis-a-vis the previous sentence is this: while "increased labor and capital mobility" cause problems for big welfare states (countries) those states can enhance their compatibility in the global market by lowering taxes and lowering welfare benefits.

Puerto Rico's culture altered by globalization: Not every aspect of globalization is culturally appropriate, as is represented in the situation in Ponce, Puerto Rico, described by Benjamin Tillman in the journal Southeastern Geographer. In fact Tillman explains over the years scholars studying Latin American dynamics have considered the Spanish American Plaza "and its surrounding architecture" to be the very "epitome of the Latin American cultural landscape" (p. 341). In Latin American the plaza is usually the central cultural portion of a town. Tillman quotes from anthropologist Setha Low: "Plazas are spatial representations of Latin American society"; and he quotes from Latin scholar Joseph Scarpaci: plazas are "mirrors of Latin American culture" that can be interpreted "for insights…[into] cultural identity" (Tillman, p. 341).

That having been said, it is no secret that plazas in the great Latin American cities are gathering places for numerous cultural celebrations and activities. And in Puerto Rico, the Latin American Plaza does not look so Latin anymore, due to globalization. In fact between 1907 and the year 2000, big changes took place, changes that are not culturally appropriate. In 1907 there was "one international business located adjacent to the plaza" but by the year 2000 "seven of the thirty two lots facing the plaza were occupied by international chain stores." Add to that the fact that another nine lots had locally own businesses but used "English names."

The larger picture here is that "changes may eventually occur in plazas throughout Latin America" as historically "distinct places" become part of the globalization movement toward similarity and sameness (Tillman, p. 340). Tourists who visited Honduras' Teguicgalpa (the central plaza) fifteen years ago would perhaps be shocked today to see Little Caesars' pizza restaurant right in the plaza. In Guatemala City's main plaza there is a Wendy's hamburger restaurant -- and in Mexico City's historic central plaza (which once was the site of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan) there are those ubiquitous golden arches of McDonald's (p. 341).

And so globalization, in Tillman's words, is more than "the process by which nations interact with each other politically, economically, militarily and culturally"; globalization is in fact having a "homogenizing affect on the cultural landscape, as distinct places become increasingly similar in their outward appearance" (p. 341). In the case of Ponce, Puerto Rico, the plaza originally took shape in the late 1700s; residents used one end of it to "hold cattle." In 1929 a cathedral was build there and in 1962 a "Centro Historico" was created to preserve the plaza's 19th Century architecture. But obviously today it looks like places from China to Chicago, with fast food and pop culture shops more prevalent than even the cathedral.

Globalization's affect on children's mental health: It seems there is no end to the influence on countries and cultures due to the spread of change through globalization. To wit, an article in the International Journal of Mental Health points to the fact that globalization has influenced traditional cultural ideas and values with reference to… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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