Term Paper: Nineteenth Century Physiologist Claude Bernard

Pages: 6 (2186 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Animals

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[. . .] " The experiments involved cruel and heartbreaking methods to obtain results. Experiments like these are fundamentally wrong. It can be equated to the Nazi's during the Second World War conducting experiments on humans to improve the life of other humans. (Newton & Lyons, 2001) These experiments are sadistic and they should be stopped as quickly as possible.

There are better ways for finding the effect of lifestyle even on animals. Better records can be kept of veterinary visits or medical treatments that are conducted for the benefit of animals. This data can be then synthesized to obtain any trends and observations in the data collected.

The John Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing was set up 20 years ago in the U.S. It is devoted to investigating and developing alternatives to animal testing. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Paris-based club of the world's richest 29 nations decided to abolish the LD50 -- Lethal Dose50 (50% of the dose of a substance required to cause death) test in 2000.

Are humans superior to animals? Does this superior attitude allow man to do what he likes to animals? Animals do have a lot in common with human beings -- physiologically and emotionally. If animals can be used to help understand human beings then at some level we do consider them our equal, and we do assume that they have the same behavioral patterns as humans. Claims of non-awareness of the feeling that animals have cannot give man the right to use animals as they like.

Jeremy Bentham states that the question of whether animal can reason or whether they can talk is not important but whether animals can suffer and no matter what is said they do. He defined the "prerequisite for having interests...if a being suffers there can be no moral justification for refusing to take the suffering into consideration" (Singer 1979:31); he called this "principle of consideration of interests."

Many scientists are now questioning the results got from the experiments done on animals. Various factors, such as the stress induced by caging animals can change the behavior and the biochemical makeup of animals. No experimentation carried out on one species in an environment other that its own natural habitat be extrapolated to any other, including man.

Man should realize the importance of other animal species. People might try to deny that animals are similar to us -- animals have no feeling and emotions. A paradox indeed! If animals are so different how then can they be then used to determine how man functions? If results based on animal experimentation is considered valid for humans are we under no obligation to treat them justly and fairly since they are more similar to us than we claim them to be. How can we ignore their sufferings?

Bibliography

Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002. http://www.peta-online.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report no.8, Hans Ruesch's CIVIS, Winter 1989-1990. 18 April 2002.

Coghlan, Andy. "Lab Rats Rejoice." From New Scientist, 9 December 2000. 18 April 2002. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/animalexperiments/animalnews85.jsp

Cohen, Murry J., Kaufman, Stephen R., Ruttenberg, Rhoda, and Fano, Alix. "A Critical Look At Animal Experimentation." Medical Research Modernization Committee, 1998. 18 April 2002. http://www.mrmcmed.org/critcv.html

CU Medical Center tortures helpless monkeys in useless maternal deprivation experiments." 18 April 2002. http://www.vivisectioninfo.org/deprivation/index.html

D'Agnese, Joseph. "An embarrassment of Chimpanzees." Discover, May 2002. 18 April 2002.

LaFollette, Hugh and Shanks, Niall. "Animal Experimentation: the Legacy of Claude Bernard"

International Studies in the Philosophy of Science (1994) pp. 195-210. 18 April 2002. http://www.etsu.edu/philos/faculty/hugh/bernard.htm

Newton, Max and Lyons, Dan. "Iams - the Suffering behind the 'Science'" 27 May 2002. 18 April 2002. http://www.uncaged.co.uk/iams.htm

Presented by People for Reason in Science and Medicine (PRISM). A nonprofit health and environmental organization. "Animal Experimentation and Human Medicine." Library of Congress #94-74005. 18 April 2002. http://www.sumeria.net/health/prism.html#fore

Plan to rear Baby Chimpanzees as Humans Draws Fire." February 13, 2002. 18 April 2002. http://www.idausa.org/news/currentnews/news_uoflouisiana.html [END OF PREVIEW]

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