Non-Direct Communication Ghost Writing

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Non-Directive Communication

Theories of Communication

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These theories derive from behavioral and cognitive, humanistic and psychodynamic philosophies (Wagner 2011). The choice depends on the nurse's psychological orientation and approach towards mental health. These are the cognitive-behavioral, client or person-centered, psychodynamic, and humanist theories. The cognitive-behavioral theory or CBT, a creation of psychologist Aaron T. Beck, aims at identifying the person's problem areas and solving them by changing his thought and behavior patterns. The patient records his or her thoughts between sessions as his or her homework. The client or person-centered theory evolved from the concept of Carl Rogers, a prominent psychoanalyst in the mid 1900s. It is also known as the Rogerian theory of communication. It helps establish better relationships. It is based on three major factors, namely genuineness, acceptance, and understanding. The theory requires the nurse or therapist to remain aware of his or her personal feelings and is, therefore, interpersonal and analytical. It often results in much transference and counter-transference. It is comparatively more personalized than the CBT model. The psychodynamic theory is the contribution of Carl G. Jung. It emphasizes on the patient's early childhood, dreams and unconscious wishes. As such, communication relies on dream analysis, free associations, word association and unconscious repressions. The nurse or therapist comments only when interpreting in order to help the patient view something in a different way. He or she seldom comments, engages in small talk or shows empathy. And the humanistic theory views the patient in the context of his or her uniqueness and the uniqueness of his or her problems. Thus, these cannot be neatly categorized. This theory uses existential psychology principles and focuses on major life changes, like birth, death and loss. The nurse or therapist teaches and guides more than analyzes (Wagner).

The Place of Interpersonal Communication in Nursing

Ghost Writing on Non-Direct Communication Assignment

Verbal and non-verbal interactions are an essential part of communication and therapy. These are in the form of the nurse's choice of words, volume of voice, speed of speech, tone, facial expression, attitude and emotion (Roath 2011). These affect the way a patient interprets the nurse's message. The basic skills required of nurses in interpersonal communication include listening, questioning, encouraging or reinforcing, providing information, responding and comforting or reassuring. The four basic elements of communication are the sender, the receiver, the message and the channel. A message is interpreted according to the nature of these elements and their interaction. Both the sender of a message and its receiver necessarily infuse their personal backgrounds into the sending, receiving and interpreting of the message (Roath).

Factors, Effectiveness and Barriers

A nurse's needs, values, personality and desire are necessarily incorporated into the communication mechanism (Roath 2011). These psychological and social aspects are perceived along with the message she transmits to the patient. The patient, in turn, interprets the message with the color of his own personality, values, needs and desire as well. The nurse should struggle to see the situation from the patient's side in order to succeed in interpersonal communication and therapy. Merely passing or expressing a message or information is not enough. A nurse's message must be clear, simple, short and direct. Many times, she needs to provide examples, demonstrate and repeat in various ways. The patient needs to exactly and clearly what she is communicating. He should perceive the basics of the message as to what, why, when, how, who and where. As a listener, the nurse should not only passively receive the message. She should concentrate, pay attention to the patient's words, tone, volume, silence, emotion and attitude. She should not interrupt or judge. She should repeat or interpret the message when needed in order to insure that she understands it correctly. She should encourage the patient by nodding or through verbal cues (Roath).

Physical or psychological barriers can destroy or prevent the clear transmission of a message or information (Roath 2011). These are termed "noise," and refer to everything that distorts the communication. The nurse should be able to read and appreciate facial expressions, eye movements, hand gestures, body postures and uncontrolled responses, such as pulse and breathing rates. She should avoid swift and unpleasant expressions. She should carefully consider what she says before she says it. These are some barriers to effective communication. One more barrier is the ethics of breaking bad news. The nurse should be well aware of the hospital or institutions' written policy and guidelines on ethical and moral issues. She should know how to impart such news in different situations. She should always remember that the patient and his or her family are human and sensitive. She should break bad news personally and not through telephone (Roath).

Carl Rogers

He was the most renowned psychologist of his time (Zimring 1999). He saw human nature in a different way, which led him to develop a unique brand of psychotherapy and education style. He recognized that every person has an inherent ability to actualize himself. When that ability is set free, he can solve all his problems. The nurse or therapist may be an expert, but she is not meant to understand the patient's problem for him or solve it for him. Instead, she is supposed to tap the patient's own power or ability to seek his own solution to his own problem. In Rogers' time, this view was controversial. The accepted view then was the patient's need for a solution from the expert. He proposed the same argument in education. He argued that the student naturally possesses interests and enthusiasms. The teacher's task is to release these interests and enthusiasms and channel them to make the student learn and grow (Zimring).

Rogers was born into a family with hardy Midwestern farm values (Zimring 1999).

These values very likely shaped his pioneering attitudes towards independence. They may have made him believe that a person will act in ways that will benefit him if he is freed from the influence or dictates of society. His farm experiences could have impressed upon him the inevitability and power of growth in nature. He may also have profited from the intellectual influences of John Dewey, Paul Tillich and William H. Kilpatrick, among others, of his time. He became a clinical psychologist who specialized in child guidance at the Rochester Child Guidance Clinic. Towards the end of his work, he discovered that a patient actually has a better knowledge about what things are important after receiving therapy from him. He presented this insight in Counseling and Psychotherapy at the Ohio State University in 1942 where he later moved to. This revolutionary view grew within him when he transferred to the University of Chicago in 1945. He discussed student-centered teaching in the University's publication, "Client-centered Therapy" in 1951. He tackled the parallel view of psychotherapy from non-directive to the importance of attitudes. He emphasized attitudes over techniques. He believed that a person cannot be taught directly but only facilitate his own learning. The therapist only sets the mood, makes the purpose clear for the patient and then serves as the adaptable resource for the latter (Zimring).

The Theory's Central Conditions

Rogers established 6 central conditions (Zimring 1999). First, the therapist or nurse should be congruent or integrated in the therapeutic relationship. She should be aware of the way she experiences the relationship and his attitude towards the patient. It also requires her willingness to communicate about this experience if it becomes an obstacle to the two other central conditions. Another is her unconditional positive regard towards the patient. She must experience a warm acceptance of every aspect of the patient's experience as if she is part of him. When this happens, he experiences unconditional positive regard. And the last central condition is her empathic understanding of his internal basis and her endeavor to communicate this to the patient. Roger believed that these conditions, when met, are sufficient in therapy. The nurse or therapist does not need to understand the patient's personality or problems or guide him in solving his problem. If she is genuine, unconditionally accepting and empathetically understanding, therapy can occur (Zimring).

Rogers centered on motivating rather than dictating to a patient (Zimring 1999). In the patient, as well as the student, an innate capacity for health and growth already exists. When this self-actualizing process in the patient is freed, he will naturally initiate his own recovery. The recovery will be more thorough and lasting than when brought about by traditional therapy. The process can be freed through the therapist or nurse's attitudes. These attitudes unconditionally respect and appreciate the patient's ability. They are her empathic response to him. But so far, programs, which experimented on Rogers' theory have shown that therapists find difficulty in changing their attitudes. They are unable to share their power and responsibility with the patient. They fail to trust the intrinsic motivation of the patient to direct his own recovery. But the programs also highlighted that a patient's chances of recovery improved when the therapist's attitudes are changed and attuned to the patient's intrinsic… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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