Term Paper: Non-Ionizating Radiation in Recent Years

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[. . .] As the conversation has to pass two ways the mobile phones and the base stations produce radio frequencies or RF radiation. Since the base station and the mobile units are both only short-range useable, the RF rays emitted from them are also pretty low. Most scientists both in the U.S. And in other nations agree that the radiations emitted form the mobile phones are too low to cause any sort of damage. When an experiment is being conducted as to the effect of the electromagnetic rays on the biological system, this does not mean that this will affect the health of the organism on the whole. To find out exactly it is essential that we measure the frequency levels by analyzing using sensitive measurements methods, using which even the most smallest change in reaction can be deducted. This helps us to realize that the human body on the whole has the competence to deal with external forces and also defy them if the need be, with the help of immune systems and also be able to acclimatize itself if the circumstances call for it. (http://www.gr.nl.pdf)

The main problem behind not being able to identify the exact cause for cancer is that most of the time there are different causes for the disease. But it is true that even if mobile phones were not actually responsible for cancer, looking at the number of people using it, and not to forget the actual rates of brain cancer prevalent in the U.S. which is said to affect six out of 100-000 people in a year, it is believed by many that several people will be affected by the disease. In order to actual diagnose this disease it becomes important that very vigilant studies be conducted. While investigating carcinogens, most health agencies base it on two different types of studies- the epidemiological studies and the standardized tests. The epidemiological studies are basically the statistics of existing studies and standardized are those that are conducted on animals. But none of the evidence even remotely related mobile phones and cancer.

There are some studies that suggest that RF radiation from hand-held mobile phones might cause subtle biochemical, physiological or behavioral changes. However, none of the studies provides substantial evidence that mobile phone base stations might pose a health hazard. Most of the reports are of "effects" that do not imply the existence of hazards. Most of the studies use RF radiation of intensity far above those associated with mobile phone base stations. Many of these reports have not been independently confirmed, and there are grounds for being skeptical about most of them. A few examples of these studies are Preece et al. reported that exposure of human volunteers to mobile phone RF radiation might decrease reaction times. (Preece; Iwi, 1999) The press coverage was extensive; but the actual study has no obvious implications for human health since the effect was seen for just one of many tests and it appears to be far too small to have any real functional significance. D'Andrea reviewed reports of the behavioral effects of RF radiation and concluded that: "Recent studies have suggested that microwave effects on specific cognitive aspects of behavior such as attention, learning, memory, discrimination, and time perception may occur at SAR levels far below the SARs needed to cause work stoppage." (D'Andrea, 1999) Freude et al. exposed human volunteers to RF radiation from a GSM phone and found small changes in EEG that "did not indicate any influence on human performance, well-being and health." (Freude, 2000)

There are quite a few studies that indicate that the RF rays from mobile phones may cause biochemical, physiological or behavioral damage. But none of these even goes close to mentioning that more than the mobile phones their base station probably would cause more harm. None of these studies even stated any damage by these stations. Most of these studies are still not fully accepted and are most controversial. A study by Preece et al. stated that when certain individuals were exposed to these RF rays then it decreased their reaction time. (Preece; Iwi, 1999) though the coverage done by the press was massive it did not have any proper basis to be based on. D'Andrea analyzed these reports and came to a decision that ' The studies just go to prove that the effect microwave effect on the human behaviour, attention, learning, memory occur at SAR level and in order to stop work the SAR levels would have to be very low. (D'Andrea, 1999). Freude et all, conducted a study in which he kept some volunteers in an atmosphere where there were radiations from a GSM mobile phone. The RF rays from the phone, 'did not in any way affect the human performance or his health.' (Freude, Ullsperger 2000)

When Rothman et al. conducted a study in 1996, to find out the health of nearly 250,000 mobile phone users they realized that that there was no difference between users of the hand held mobile phones which had their antennas attached close to the head and the other phones, the car phones, which had their antennae attached to the car. (Rothman; Loughlin, 1996) This same group conducted a study in 1999 where they analyzed the health of nearly 300,000 mobile phone users. This analysis proved that there was no difference in the health of individuals in regard to cancer, leukemia or brain cancer rates, while comparing individuals using the hand phones or the mobile phones. Even other studies have showed that there is no truth in the concept of mobile phones causing cancer or any epidemic disease. (Dreyer; Loughlin; Rothman, 1999) Four groups evaluated brain cancer in people using mobile phones in 1999-2001, the groups being, Hardell et al., Muscat et al.,(Muscat; Malkin, 2000), Inskip et al. (Inskip, 2001) and Johansen et al. (Johansen; Boice, 2001). These studies proved that there was relation between the mobile usage of these individuals and brain cancer

Lennart Hardell and a few of his colleagues from the Orebro Medical Centre in Orebro, Sweden, conducted a study on 209 patients who were suffering from brain tumor, in contrast to 425 other individuals who were healthy. This study was provided funding by the Swedish Medical Research council. (www.spectrum.ieee.org) The media did not do justice to this subject and they focused on the aspect that some of the individuals with brain tumor stated that they had the tumor on the side of the head that they used to talk on the phone. But this was could be really blamed to be the reason behind the whole problem as it was possible that those individuals could have been having a 'recall bias', a factor that states that individuals who are suffering with a diseases connect it to anything they feel could be viable. Most individuals who were suffering with brain cancer in Hardell's analysis all had prior opinions on about their mobile usage. It is known fact that Brain cancer usually takes years or probably even ten years to actually develop. Another pullback in the study was the fact that the study did not emphasize on the future hazards. Usually to be able to diagnose cancer is not a simple task. In order to be able to diagnose the smallest increase in the danger faced by the individual it is essential that we conduct large studies that are both difficult to organize and also give us various elucidations that are tedious and confusing to comprehend. In order to have a proper study it would also be essential that a person's usage of his mobile phone be observed for over a span of ten years that is both impossible and ridiculous along with the frequent technological changes. (Hardell; N. sman, 1999)

The only risks from these cell phones that can be stated as of now is the fact that these instruments have lead to a lot of accidents in the past few years when they have been used while driving. Mostly animals have been used to analyze the causes and reasons related to cancer, and even they have not proven any connection. When rats were left in an atmosphere where 837 Mhz RF energy was released, the level that is given out by most mobile phones, it was realized that this did not in any way instigate brain cancer. Motorola conducted this study, in order to get to the bottom of the truth. W.R Ross Adey in 1999 published this in the University of California at Riverside. Adey also conducted the same experiments for continuous wave RF that is used in some analog cellular phones. These were further supported by Bernard Zook of the George Washington University in Washington D.C. In a meeting in 1999. This also has lead to a conclusion by many individuals that cell phones… [END OF PREVIEW]

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