Term Paper: Non-Traditional Security Threats

Pages: 23 (8197 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Terrorism  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] It was a major loss of life in an assault on the continent since 1998, when a bomb smashed a Pan American Flight causing the death of over 250 passengers and in Scotland where the wreckage were strewn across. (Burgess, 2004, p.A13) In remembrance of the Madrid bombings that left several over 170 dead, March 11 was observed as the day of the Victims simultaneously throughout Europe. (Evans-Pritchard, 2004, p.7)

The train bombings on March 11 underlined the flaws in the 25-nation cartel's fight to counter extremism and European Union directed ministers to hasten execution of approved terrorism combating initiatives and better their support. Ever since the Madrid incident; security has been beefed up by individual nations. Europeans are all of a sudden insightful of the inferences of these bombing incidents that could have on Europe. Would Madrid or any upcoming assault have the potential to topple other governments? - Who have been faithful associates of the U.S. war against extremism? Will the new leadership in Spain feel comfortable with his correlatives nearby, and renew a transatlantic fracture that is on the path of recovery a year following the Iraq offensive? A positive reply to these two questions would be deplorable. The European countries on a realistic standpoint also feel the immediacy to augment antiterrorism initiatives.

The EU combined anti-terrorism programs are in place meant to stop the funds of the subversive system and obtaining information of the people held for terrorism related offenses. However, the programs acquire different measure of willingness among the signatory nations with inconsistent political structure and national safety. For instance, five out of the fifteen recent states that have signed up are yet to put in place a program for a combined arrest warrants, endorsed by the EU soon after the 2001 incidents in the U.S. (Burgess, 2004, p.A13) In spite of the ultimatum pressed by the EU leaders in the aftermath of the massive Madrid bombings, some countries including Italy have not executed nearly all the EU's initiatives against extremism. These nations had all been unsuccessful in putting into action the arrest warrants that does away with cumbersome expatriation hassles and replaces it with blazing fast handover of culprits suspected for a series of severe crimes. (Moller, 2004, p.4)

The terrorist assaults of 11 September indicated that security policy and transatlantic assistance have not become archaic following the culmination of the clash of the Eastern and the Western world. But the demands imposed on them have transformed remarkably: the concept of exhaustive security entails that internal and external security cannot be segregated from each other any more. Prevention of disagreement and post-disaster mitigation efforts has been at the minimum as urgent as the capability to undertake military and police force action in response to the intimidation. Combating extremism will indicate depending more and more on intelligence. Several security specialists are of the opinion that European nations should increase information sharing gathered by the individual security outfits. (William, 2003, p.17)

Prior to the 2001 strikes, similar collaboration was a totally an unpleasant state of affair. For example, Officials of France have objected to the fact that Britain has been very lenient on the Islamic extremists residing in its nation. British officials maintain that they nab anybody infringing law or pose a threat. They are even toying with the idea of establishing a combined Intelligence bureau. But there is no necessity for more bureaucracy in Europe. It requires that its devices be put to appropriate use like Europol, set up last year to perk up mutual aid among the judicial officers. It also requires that its anti-terrorism agenda, set off by 2001 incident is totally implemented. For example five nations are yet to formulate a European-wide system for arrest warrants. The present European Union should also grapple with conveying the antiterrorism brawl to 10 fresh members. This comprises how to widen a new European Union wide border security agency to new members. EU officers agreed that discord among intelligence bodies caused a grave challenge. (Burgess, 2004, p.A13)

Intelligence sharing, at the time of its happening, is often done carried outside the realm of EU between nation having mutual benefits. Suggestions for cross-border intelligence agency were not considered to be important due to the shielded character of the national security organization. A core body to coordinate and counteract intimidation of modern terrorism nationwide does not appear to exist in any of the member nations of the European Union. France seems to have made some efforts in this direction. The infrastructure that exists in these countries comprises of many organizations with definite fractional accountabilities and powers along with some harmonizing organs ensuring in time submission of information assisting in quick decision-making process. To generalize, it is said that even the incidents of September 11th have not impelled these nations to bring an amendment in the existing security structure. (William, 2003, p.18)

The existing security structure along with the supplementations made during post-September 11th periods is supposed by the nations to be sufficient in order to counteract the probable intimidations. Diversities of opinions among the nations occur mainly due to their unique security structures and their response to the past internal violence. The terrorism has been dealt with in some nations by implementation of explicit laws or seems to have been explicitly stated in the provisions of respective Criminal Code. Contrary to this in some other nations it has been left to the generalized provisions of criminal code to be dealt in along with other acts of criminal offence. (William, 2003, p.18) There is an urgency to build trust. Among the more intuitive leaders in Europe are very conscious of the possible terrorist menace their nations are facing. But, for terrorism to genuinely transform Europe's foreign policy, an offensive akin to that of 2001 incident is necessary to occur in Europe alone. Otherwise, the political higher ups will keep on vexed and rightly as such with issues connected to the EU than to extremism. (Burgess, 2004, p.A13)

Chapter-3

Weapons of mass destruction and nuclear threat

The peace and security in international arena are at stake by the propagation of the arms and ammunitions aiming at mass destruction. The striving of terrorists for attainment of the weapons of mass destruction has multiplied the magnitude of fear. The propagation of the weapons of mass destruction during the post Cold War periods has posed the greatest of the menaces to European countries. The probability of causing innumerable deaths and injuries with use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) by the organized criminal groups has become a reality deserving serious attention particularly in post-2001 incident. The production of the Weapons of Mass Destruction has become smoothened by research of some states as an entry in to the technology. N. Korea and Iran have the probability of striking Europe with possession of such Weapons of Mass Destruction, even though the possibilities from Iraq and like countries in this case have been avoided. (William, 2003, p.16)

This has become a matter of serious concern to Europe and reflected their reaction in the policies with regard to impositions on arms, creation of specific departments of homeland defense, and starting the missile defense strategies. Accelerations in the field of distribution of the weapons has also been seen with the technological dissemination in the field of missiles from N. Korea to other states as one of the example. Investigative reports indicate keenness of the organized criminal groups like Al Qaeda of acquiring the necessary skills in procurement and production of WMDs. The keenness of the criminal groups especially towards biological and chemical WMDs is increasing. However, it is not possible to identify the clandestine practices of the terrorists with regard to pre-arrangements for application of the weapons and even if the weapons are applied it is not possible to identify its performers. Stocks of outdated, discarded armed instruments, including nuclear submarines of Russia and innumerable banned landmines, seem to lie unused within the vicinity of the Eastern Europe. (Solana, 2003, p.10)

There is every possibility of them giving rise to hazardous mishaps; giving scope to the criminal groups for utilization of the same with ill motive; and inducing the authorities to pass them on to the irresponsible users. European countries are observed to prioritize less for being ready to counteract the threat of terrorist assaults with Weapons of Mass Destruction in comparison to that of the threat of assault by the conventional weapons. The fear aroused at the time of actual application of the weapons by the terrorists encourages them to assault at greater magnitude. The conventional security mechanism of the state existing presently normally proves to be futile when the organized criminal groups are armed with the weapons of mass destruction. The new fears with regard to such terrorist activities necessitated the states to devise new policies and new measures for combating the anticipated terrorism. (Spear, 2003, p.8)

In the changing scenario… [END OF PREVIEW]

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