Annotated Bibliography: Nursing -- Annotated Bibliography

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[. . .] What reflective learning does is to train the mind think about not only on how to do a procedure, but why. Reflective learning, argue the authors, is essential for developing the capacity for becoming an effective leader, because the ability to consider one's own contributions to events will lead to increased competency in the future. Accordingly, the authors review what is known about reflective learning, acquiring reflective learning skills, and evaluating success in teaching reflective learning skills, which constitutes the last half of the article.

Landmark, Bjorg TH., Hansen, Grethe Storm, and Bjones, Ingebjorg. (2003). Clinical supervision -- factors defined by nurses as influential upon the development of competence and skills in supervision. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 834-841.

Landmark and colleagues were interested in developing a deeper understanding of what factors help clinical supervisors attain supervisory competence. When they looked back over the research that had been conducted in this area over the past decade they realized clinical nursing supervisors themselves had not been interviewed extensively concerning what factors determined supervisory competence. To remedy this shortcoming in the research literature, Landmark and colleagues relied on a focus group approach to stimulate the discovery of both individual and consensus opinions that would help the authors identify these factors. With the cooperation of three hospitals in Norway, three focus groups consisting of six to eight participants spent approximately 90 minutes together six times over a 4-month period. All participants were nurses with experience as clinical supervisors and six of these had experience in clinical practice development. The mean length of time was 4.3 years for clinical supervision. The findings from this study reveal that the responses from the focus groups could be categorized into didactics, role function, and organization framework. With respect to didactics, the participants expressed a need to better connect theory with practice both for themselves and their students. In addition, the roles of clinical supervisor need to be better defined, because the role of student supervision is rarely recognized by both the supervisor and the healthcare organization. This latter point highlights the need for a continuing education infrastructure that fosters interactions between clinical supervisors and students, which is the responsibility of the organization. While the limitations include a small, demographically uniform sample, this study begins the process of identifying the factors that influence supervisory competence from the perspective of clinical supervisors.

Lenburg, Carrie B. (1999). The framework, concepts and methods of the Competency Outcomes and Performance Assessment (COPA) model. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 4(2). Retrieved 12 May 2013 from http://gm6.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume41999/No2Sep1999/COPAModel.htm.

Carrie Lenburg is interested in increasing practice competency through the utilization of what she calls a "cohesive conceptual framework" for communicating best practice methods and conducting performance evaluations. She argues convincingly that the field of nursing education and workplace training is unorganized and too subjective. To help remedy the situation, she has developed through years of research the Competency Outcomes and Performance Assessment (COPA) model. At the core of this model are four criteria that must be addressed: (1) define the essential competency and what the outcome should be, (2) chose the indicators that best define the competency, (3) utilize the best method for teaching the competency, and (4) develop an effective competency evaluation strategy. While fulfilling all these requirements will not be easy, the COPA model, as presented in the current article, represents a useful checklist and guide because it is so detailed. While identifying the competency may be relatively easy, the real work begins with formulating the outcome statement, indentifying the indicators, and choosing the instruction method. The outcome statement requires the conversion of competency objectives into outcomes using action statements like the student will be able 'to do', 'write about', 'perform, or 'know.' Competency indicators can include clinical observation, simulation, or verbal or written examinations, in addition to numerous modifiers that increase the specificity of the evaluation. The list of considerations are too numerous to review here; however, Lenburg's review of COPA presents a detailed and comprehensive consideration of the essential elements needed to formulate a teaching and evaluation approach for nursing continuing education needs.

Noble, Helen. (2009). The challenges of setting up a teaching event for health-care staff. British Journal of Nursing, 18(6), 374-377.

Helen Noble was faced with the task of teaching nursing staff at a local hospice how to treat and manage patients with kidney disease who have decided to stop dialysis. Noble justified the need for this training with a review of recent trends in kidney patient demographics, which show the median age to be increasing. These elderly patients, clinicians are realizing, may actually experience a decline in quality of life due to dialysis. For this reason, a greater percentage of patients are declining dialysis treatment. There is thus a growing need for training hospice staff to manage and treat these patients. During the planning stage for this teaching event Noble realized the primary concerns she faced was what teaching method or methods would be appropriate for students with a variety of experience and professional backgrounds and how to keep them focused on the task at hand. She decided to use an approach that shifted from one mode of learning every 20 minutes during the 60 minute class. The lessons she learned from this experience are discussed in the second half of the article. Instead of the PowerPoint-centered presentation that tends to emphasize the needs of the teacher (transmissive model), she concluded that a facilitative model would have been more effective. If the class had instead been broken up into groups and the PowerPoint presentation material discussed openly and within groups every few minutes, Noble believed the material might have been better retained and grasped. Posting the material online would also have provided an opportunity for lagging students to reengage the material at their leisure, thereby allowing them to grasp more of what the instructor was trying to communicate. Breaking the class up into shorter session would also have created opportunities for students to discuss and consider the presented… [END OF PREVIEW]

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