Nursing Shortage Issues Surrounding Research Paper

Pages: 8 (2586 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 4  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Health - Nursing

Present Impact

Baccalaureate programs are offered at approximately 606 four-year colleges and universities. The Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN) program prepares graduates to practice across all healthcare setting and take on the widest assortment of healthcare roles. BSN programs include all of the course work taught in ADN and diploma programs plus a more in-depth treatment of the physical and social sciences, nursing research, public and community health, nursing management, and the humanities. The additional course work augments the student's professional development and provides the basis for progression to advanced practice roles in nursing (Raines & Taglaireni, 2008).

Baccalaureate nursing programs encompass all of the course work taught in associate degree and diploma programs plus a more in-depth treatment of the physical and social sciences, nursing research, public and community health, nursing management, and the humanities. The additional course work enhances the student's professional development, prepares the new nurse for a broader scope of practice, and provides the nurse with a better understanding of the cultural, political, economic, and social issues that affect patients and influence health care delivery.

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Furthermore research indicates that every 10% increase in the proportion of BSN nurses on the hospital staff was associated with a 4% decrease in the risk of death. These findings have resulted in a variety of proposals from policymakers, practice leaders and researchers who have all recognized that education makes a difference in how nurses practice (AACN, 2010).

Research Paper on Nursing Shortage Issues Surrounding the Assignment

Lucy J. Hood (2009) reports that during the mid 1980s differentiated competencies for ADN and BSN prepared nurses were established. Competencies set forth for ADN's are tended to center around caregiver, councilor, and educator activities. BSN competencies include these as well as the roles of client advocate, colleague coordinator, and change agent. ADN nurses are educated to provide nursing care to persons with similar health issues in a structured environment. BSN nurses are educated to engage in independent thinking and provide nursing care to persons with complex and differing health issues within a variety of settings, including the community. Other responsibilities of BSN nurses is to develop researched-based care protocols, assume nursing management positions, and coordinate care for persons with complex interactive health care needs.

A Side by Side Comparison of ADN and BSN Competencies

ADN -- Prepared Nurses

BSN -- Prepared Nurses

Provide direct care to individual clients with common, well-defined nursing diagnoses while considering clients' familial relationships.

Provide direct care to clients with many different nursing diagnoses using nursing process to define individualized and complex interactive nursing diagnoses while considering the client relationships within family and community.

Practice within a structured setting that is a geographic or situational environment where policies, procedures and protocols provide provisions for health care.

Practice within structured or non-structured settings for families, groups, aggregates, and communities. The lack of formalized policies and protocols necessitates the use of independent nursing decisions.

Use basic therapeutic communication skills with a focal client group and coordinate efforts with other health team members to meet client-focused needs.

Use complex communication skills with clients, collaborate with other health team members, and assume accountable charge role for client care in a variety of settings.

Recognize the focal client's need for information and modify standardized teaching plans.

Assess client information needs and design individualized client teaching plans.

Acknowledge that nursing research influences nursing practice and assist in standardized data collection procedures.

Collaborate with nursing researchers to incorporate nursing research findings into nursing practice. Develop nursing-based research protocols.

Organize client care aspects for which the nurse is responsible.

Manage comprehensive client care for clients for whom the charge nurse is responsible.

Maintain accountability for own practice and aspects of care delegated to peers, licensed practical (vocational) nurses, and unlicensed assistive personnel.

Maintain accountability for own practice and aspects of care delegated to other nursing personnel consistent with their levels of education, licensure, and expertise.

Plan and implement nursing care consistent with the overall admission to post- discharge plan within a specified work period.

Plan nursing care on identified needs of clients from admission until after discharge.

Practice within the legal and ethical parameters of nursing.

Practice within the legal and ethical parameters of nursing.

(Hood, 2009, p.19)

Future Implications and Summary

Differentiating competencies gives health care providers the opportunity to utilize the education and experience provided by the diverse educational programs leading to RN licensure. The RN is given the opportunity to practice to their potential, taking full advantage of educational preparation, while not being expected to practice beyond it. In many cases, differentiated models of practice are supported by a clinical "ladder" or defined steps for advancement within the organization based on experience in nursing, education, certifications, or other indicators of professional excellence (AACN, 2010).

Nurses are involved in decisions that affect client's lives. Regardless of the preparation program completed, it is imperative that all nurses have the intellectual capacity to master scientific concepts, understand the impact they have on others, and use this information in clinical practice to understand the consequences of their actions. Hood (2009) asserts a professional nurse must possess a body of knowledge on which professional practice is based, a specialized education to transmit this body of knowledge to others, and the ability to use this knowledge in critical and creative ways.


AACN. (2010, October). The impact of education on nursing practice. American association of colleges of nursing. Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 26, 2011 from

Clark, R.C. & Allison-Jones, L. (2011, January/February) Investing in human capitol: An academic-service partnership to address the nursing shortage. Nursing Education perspectives Vol. 32, Issue 1, 18-21. Retrieved November 26, 2011, from

Fox, R.L. & Abrahamson, K. (2009, October/December) A critical examination of the U.S. nursing shortage: Contributing factors, public policy implications. Nursing forum, Vol. 44, Issue 4, 235-244. Retrieved November 26, 2011, from

Hood, L.J. (2009). Leddy & Pepper's conceptual bases of professional nursing. 7th ed. Hong Kong, China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Huber, L. (2006, December 23). ADN vs. BSN. Nursing leadership and education. Retrieved November 26, 2011 from

Raines, F.C. & Taglaireni, E.M. (2008). Career pathways in nursing: Entry points and academic progression. Online journal of issues in nursing. Vol. 13, Issue 3, 1. Retrieved November 26, 2011 from [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Nursing Shortage Issues Surrounding.  (2011, November 29).  Retrieved April 6, 2020, from

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"Nursing Shortage Issues Surrounding."  29 November 2011.  Web.  6 April 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Nursing Shortage Issues Surrounding."  November 29, 2011.  Accessed April 6, 2020.