Thesis: Nursing Theory Rosemary Parse

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Nursing Theorist: Rosemary Parse

BACKGROUND & INFLUENCING FACTORS

Rosemarie Rizzo Parse earned her BS in Nursing from Duquesne University, located in Pittsburg, and earned her Master's Degree in Nursing and PhD from the University of Pittsburg. In 1981, Parse "...presented a unique theory of nursing titled 'Man-Living Health'..." which was a synthesis of concepts and principles from the work of Roger (18970, 1984) as well as "concepts and tenets from existential phenomenology." (Hickman,

Rosemary Parse's theory on 'Human Becoming' holds that man is the combination of psychological, biological, sociological and spiritual factors in what is a 'totality paradigm' and that man is a unitary being in an ongoing interaction that is one of mutuality with the environment in what is called a 'simultaneity paradigm'. The three principles as stated by Rosemary Parse are as follows: (1) Meaning: (a) Man's reality is given meaning through lived experiences; and (b) Man and environment cocreate; (2) Rhythmicity: (a) Man and environment cocreate (imaging, valuing, language in) in rhythmical patterns; (3) Contranscendence: (a) reference to a reaching beyond the limits set by a person; and (b) One is constantly undergoing transformation. (Hagopian, 2001) Parse's 'Human Becoming' Theory holds that the 'person' is an 'open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts' and that the environment is' everything in the person and his experiences' and is 'inseparable, complimentary to and evolving with." (Hagopian, 2001) Hagopian (2001) states that in the view of Rosemary Parse 'health' is an "open process of being and becoming and involves synthesis of values. In Rosemary Parse's view 'nursing' is a "human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people." (Hagopian, 2001)

The work of McKenna (1997) entitled: "Nursing Theories and Models" states that Parse (1987) serves as a reminder that "scientific discipline like nursing encompasses more than one paradigm with which to guide practice and research. Each paradigm or worldview...results in the formation of several theories, which are a reflection of the parent paradigm's belief and value system "so that the concepts and propositions within a theory are congruent with the views set forth in the paradigm. Therefore, the development of science occurs within the context of paradigms." (McKenna, 1997) Parse held that nursing science has historically been known to develop and continues the course of development "within two almost contradictory paradigms: (1) the totality paradigm; and (2) the simultaneity paradigm. (McKenna, 1997)

From the view of the 'totality paradigm' the individual is seen as a "...organism whose nature is a composite of bio-psycho-social and spiritual dimensions." (McKenna,

From this view, the environment stimuli that are both internal and external to the person and the individual may manipulate and interact with the environment for the purpose of goal achievement and health maintenance. Nursing goals of this paradigm have as their primary focus the promotion of health and the care and cure of those who are sick and finally disease prevention. The totality paradigm as posited by Parse is "the predominant paradigm in nursing..." And has its roots in "the mechanistic Newtonian and Cartesian view of science and dovetails completely with the philosophy inherent within the medical model." (McKenna, 1997) From this view, the theory of nursing is focused on assisting the adaptation of the sick individual for 'self-care, interaction, and attainment of health' and the central figure of authority is the nurse. The practice of nursing is stated to be guided "...by a linear nursing process approach whereby the patient's problems area assessed, a plan of care is drawn up, interventions are undertaken and the results are evaluated." (McKenna, 1997) McKenna states that the 'totality paradigm' "gives rise to research which is quantitative in nature and where causal and associative relationships are testable." (McKenna, 1197) the 'simultaneity' paradigm is different from the totality paradigm in three primary ways: (1) in it assumptions about the person and health; (2) in relation to the goal of nursing; and (3) in the implications for research and practice. (McKenna, 1997) the 'simultaneity; paradigms views the individual as a "unitary being who is in continuous and mutual simultaneous interaction with the environment. From this view health is viewed as "a process of becoming' as well as "a set of value priorities." (McKenna, 1997) the individual experiences health and only that individual can provide an accurate description for health since no "optimum health" exists but only "how one experiences personal living." (McKenna, 1997) Winkler (1983) states that Parse's assumptions come primarily from philosophical sources and secondarily from Rogers' theory and states that the original nine assumptions of Parse (1981) are those as follows:

Man is coexisting while coconstituting rhythmical patterns with the environment (based on pattern and organization, coconstitution, and coexistence;

Man is an open being, freely choosing meaning in situation, bearing responsibility for decisions (based on energy field, openness, and situated freedom).

Man is a living unity continuously coconstituting patterns of relating (based on energy field, pattern and organization, and coconstitution;

Man is transcending multidimensionally with the possibles (based on openness, four dimensionality, and situated freedom).

Health is an open process of becoming, experienced by man (based on openness, coconstitution, and situated freedom).

Health is a rhythmically coconstituting process of the man-environment interrelationship (based on pattern and organization, four dimensionality, and coconstitution).

Health is man's pattern of relating value priorities (based on openness, pattern and organization, and situated freedom).

Health is an intersubjective process of transcending with the possibles (based on openness, coexistence, and situated freedom).

Health is unitary man's negentropic unfolding (based on energy field, four dimensionality, and coexistence).

II. MAJOR FOCUS of the THEORY/MODEL

The three theoretical structures identified in Parse's model include: (1) powering is a way of revealing-concealing imaging; (2) Originating is a manifestation of enabling-limiting valuing; and (3) Transforming unfolds in the languaging of connecting-separating. (Parse, 1983) the second theoretical structure, is one that originates as a "manifestation of enabling-limiting valuing" and one that can be "restated as creating a new one's cherished beliefs and leads in a directional movement."

The four primary assumptions of Parse (1992b) are those which hold the human being specifically as an open being in a mutual process with the universe, "...cocreating patterns of relating with others." The individual "...lives at multidimensional realms of the universe all at once, freely choosing ways of becoming as meaning is given to situations." (Parse, 1992b) Human being and the universe are in the view of Parse to be "inseparable' with each "coparticipating in the creation of the experience of living." (Parse, 1992b) From the view of Parse the concept of societal relationships is "assumed under the larger view of human beings-universe." (1992b) Cotranscendence is held by Parse to be a process of "moving beyond with others and the environment multidimensionally..." [with human beings] choosing "from the multiple possibilities as they unfold and surface in relationships with others and the universe." (Parse, 1992b

III. HOW the MODEL DEFINES the METAPARADIGM CONCEPTS (PERSON, ENVIRONMENT, NURSING and HEALTH)

The work of Parse provides a new view of human beings, health, environment and nursing in a synthesis of the principles of Roger's including: (1) helicy; (2) complementarity; and (3) resonancy along with the four concepts of: (1) openness; (2) energy field; (3) pattern and organization; and (4) four dimensionality with the tenets of existential phenomenological thought. Parse (1989) proposed a set of fundamentals that are required for the practice of nursing as an art and include the following:

1) Know and use nursing frameworks and theories;

2) Be available to others;

3) Values the other as a human presence; and 4) Respect differences in view.

IV. OTHER KEY CONCEPTS and RELATIONSHIPS in the MODEL

The work of Morrison (2004) entitled: "Virtuous Nursing: More Caring Than Science and More Scientific Than Care" states that the contribution of Parse to theoretical nursing include… [END OF PREVIEW]

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