Nutrition Gastric Surgery Article Review

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Nutrition

Bariatric Surgery and Nutritional Consequences

The prevalence of obesity is on its way up and is often associated with a number of co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, sleep apnea, pulmonary dysfunction, ischemic stroke, knee arthrosis, gallbladder disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and certain types of cancer. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most successful long-term treatment for morbid obesity, reducing obesity-associated co-morbidities (De Luis et al., 2009). But for all the good that it brings it can lead to serious nutritional deficiencies in those who undergo it.

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Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a mixed and complex operation that has shown the best long-term results regarding weight loss. BPD can be considered a very good bariatric operation. It is well-known that as difficulty increases in bariatric surgery, effectiveness also increases, but risk of secondary effects and possible complications may also go up. A good knowledge of this technique in early follow-up and of its possible complications is important for the patients. The severity of the postoperative nutritional deficit depends on several factors, including the preoperative nutritional status, the type of bariatric procedure performed, the incidence of postoperative complications, the capability to modify eating behavior as well as conformity with regular follow-up and prescribed vitamin and mineral supplementation (De Luis et al., 2009).

In a study done by De Luis et al. (2009) the researchers set out to describe clinical results and nutritional complications in morbidly obese patients with BPD. The results showed a high loss of body weight and an improvement in the prevalence of co-morbidities in patients having undergone BPD. However, blood levels of a number of micronutrients and vitamins decreased during the follow-up and different rates of deficiencies were detected.

Article Review on Nutrition Gastric Surgery Assignment

Loss of weight in the patients was important, amounting to 29.3% at 6 months and 61.5% at 3 years of follow-up.

The most frequent side event found was incisional hernia, related to open surgery and high BMI. In previous studies, the incisional hernia rate has ranged from 5 to 30%. Glycemia, plasma lipid levels and blood pressure became normal 6 months after BPD, while patients were still overweight. All the patients could quit their hypoglycemic and hypolipemic drugs. With other type of bariatric surgery, such as gastric bypass, depending on the intestinal length, the normalization of these parameters is lower. This type of surgery has been shown to have a direct effect on glycemic status (De Luis et al., 2009)

In is well-known that bariatric surgery often leads to patients experiencing long-term side effects that negatively influence their metabolism and quality of life. These side effects include: vomiting, diarrhea, osteoporosis, anemia and malnutrition. All of these side effects either lead to nutritional deficiencies or are consequences of such deficiencies. Bariatric surgeons have long wanted to find an operation that result in steady weigh loss that was simple, had only minimal risk and gave the patients the freedom to consume most foods in order to maintain nutritional sufficiency (Vassallo et… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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