Organizational Alternatives and Social Change Term Paper

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Organizational Alternatives and Social Change

What is organizational behavior? It is a social science discipline much like cultural anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. That means that it uses the scientific method to establish truth and to validate its theories. It is a discipline that historically has had its intellectual home in business schools. In addition, it is a new discipline relative to the other social sciences, having its origins in the middle of the twentieth century. The key points are that it is a science and that it has a history, which, though short, has been quite turbulent. Researchers define organizational behavior as the actions and attitudes of people in organizations. The field of organizational behavior (OB) is the body of knowledge derived from the study of these actions and attitudes. Organizational behavior can help managers identify problems, determine how to correct them, and establish whether the changes would make a difference. Such knowledge can help people better understand situations they face in the workplace and change their behavior so that their performance and the organization's effectiveness increase. (Miner, 2002; Sims, 2002, p. 2)

The concern is, first, with the behavior and nature of the people within organizations and, second, with the behavior and nature of organizations within their environments. Organizational behavior is an applied discipline, concerned with matters of practice and application. Despite this orientation, however, it has relatively few members who actually devote their primary professional efforts to the practice of organizational behavior in business and other organizational settings; rather, most are concentrated in academia teaching, writing, and conducting research. (Miner, 2002, p. 3)

As a field of study, organizational behavior includes a collection of separate theories and models, ways of thinking about particular people and events. It has its roots in the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and political science. Organizational behavior can help managers understand the complexity within organizations and that most organizational problems have several causes. Organizational behavior principles play an essential role in assessing and increasing organizational effectiveness, which is a central responsibility of and focus for all managers. (Sims, 2002, p. 2)

How do criminal justice professionals make decisions, and how does their approach differ from other organizations? Criminal justice professionals make decisions in the same fashion as other decision makers do. Some of the differences include the subject matter. It all comes down to strategy and often the focus of management. An important element of organizational success is an HRM strategy where every manager is an HRM manager. For example, every manager must be expected to set goals for the development and satisfaction of employees. Second, every employee is viewed as a valuable resource, just like buildings and equipment. The organization's success is dependent upon high-performing employees, and without such employees, there is no competitive advantage for the organization. Finally, through effective HRM programs the organization's goals are successfully integrated with individual employee needs. (Sims, 2002, p. 2)

How do we determine if criminal justice agencies and individual employees are effective in carrying out their mission? These questions are best answered by utilizing organization behavior assessment techniques and procedures, since during this process no only does one observe and analyze the actions of the employee, the actions of the organization are also evaluated and assessed. There have to be a clear set of guidelines that all staff is held to, which will insure that no one is being picked on or mistreated. If the mission and vision of the organization are clear it should be easier to track positive progression and know that, the organization continues to move forward in a positive manner. This question supports why consistent evaluation within an organization is necessary periodically. It is important to make sure that employees realize what their goals are as well as insure that the brand of the company is being projected in a positive manner.

How do administrators and line staff in police, and/or courts, and/or corrections respond to and implement change and innovation? Each individual responds differently to change and innovation for several reasons. The most obvious reason is that everyone is different and therefore responds to change, progress etc. In different ways. Second, ones position i.e. management, laborer etc. People's own values are a reflection of their home life and rearing, education and training, and religious beliefs. They bring these values to the performance of their jobs. Examples are competence, honesty, a sense of personal responsibility, completing a task on time, and pride in workmanship. (Sims, 1994, p. 4) These values are also a significant part of how one will respond to change and innovation.

Organizational and job conditions, as well as cultural contexts, determine the extent to which employment experiences enhance economic, psychological, and physical well-being by providing an opportunity to realize the positive aspects of working and the benefits of multiple-role accumulation. The current work-family literature has underemphasized the importance of job and organizational design in helping explain the work family nexus. Job quality; the ability to control when, where, and how one works; performing tasks that enhance skills and careers; work and societal cultures that value personal life; and opportunity structures that facilitate job security, mobility, and access to work-family supports all seem critical to workers' efforts to combine work and personal life effectively. (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 4)

What are some of the common barriers to change in criminal justice organizations? One common barrier is the resistance of staff to change. It is often difficult to keep ideals and functions in an organization fresh and up-to-date if you have an entire staff that is not will to make an initiative and work towards the goals of the organization. Organizations have been able to function for years and years employing the same principles. However, there comes a point when one must think outside of the box, invent, and employ new techniques in order to continue level of productivity and effectiveness of give the company a booster that will in fact allow the organization a new and fresh perspective. Another barrier deals with values i.e. personal values, organizational values, etc. this all plays a key in how well change will be received by the masses.

The values of an organization as reflected in management philosophy, its culture, and the products or services it offers echo the values of the individuals who make it up employees, supervisors, managers, and most significantly, the chief executive officer (CEO) and top leaders. Some commonly held organizational values are the importance of resources, return on investment, the welfare, and well-being of employees, service to customers and clients, and loyalty to the organization. Although the goals and values of an organization may be implicit or explicit, to a growing extent they are being placed in writing. Many companies have adopted codes of ethics or include sections in their policy statements that relate explicitly to the ethical realm of that particular organization. They address such issues as leadership, integrity, equity, employee rights, employee development, and participation in policy formulation, nondiscrimination, quality of work life, and the like. (Sims, 1994, p. 4)

What role does research play in changing policy criminal justice organizations? Research plays quit a significant role in changing policies. An organization has to see where it has been in order to plot the correct path for the future. This is true for all organizations, it is difficult to grow and improve it an organization does not acknowledge misused resources, unnecessary programs, and ineffective people in their current positions.

What changes do you see for the future of specific areas of the criminal justice system? I do not actually want to "change" perhaps enhance is better terminology. Criminal justice is a field that seems rather resilient and resistant to significant amounts of change at one time. When and if there… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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