Organizational Behavior Q's Classical Theory Is Concerned Thesis

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Organizational Behavior Q's

Classical theory is concerned primarily -- perhaps even solely -- with the organization of work, employees, and resources in a way that maximizes efficiency and thus profitability. Max Weber was one of the progenitors of this theory; he saw society as a whole as an organized structure with constituent parts in constant communication and adjustment with each other; this is primarily how this theory views business organizations as well. Behavioral theory, in contrast, asserts that certain learnable behavioral traits, especially in leaders, determine motivation and productivity. This theory places the burden of profitability on individual behaviors rather than on overall organizational structure (though neither individual behavior nor organizational structure are necessarily excluded from consideration by either theory; it is more a matter of primacy).

b.

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All organizations today, whether consciously or not, employ some mixture of both Classical and Behavioral organizational theories. Departments are organized in ways that are meant to make communication and production more efficient, and cost reduction and profitability reports (i.e. analyses of ways to improve organization efficiency) are standard and very commonly seen in most organizations, showing the heavy influence that Classical theory still wields. At the same time, there are also near-constant human resource training and improvement seminars, for those in management and standard employees alike. These stem from the belief that productivity can be further improved by teaching certain behaviors, making the organization as a whole more effective by making each individual in it more effective -- a direct application of Behavioral theory.

c.

Thesis on Organizational Behavior Q's Classical Theory Is Concerned Assignment

Hierarchical organizations are perhaps most clearly laid out according to principles based on the Classical theory, but effective coordination of departments also depends on behavioral aspects of the various department heads, and intradepartmental effectiveness is affected by motivation -- also in the realm of Behavioral theory. Network organizations depend largely on Behavioral theory's predictions to effect coordination of goals and efforts, with efforts to learn how to respond better and more efficiently forming an ongoing process, while at the same time this organizational structure is undertaken precisely because it is more efficient in some situations; flexibility in volatility is essential in Classical theory. Hybrid organizations can vary in their usage of these two organizational theories, but will necessarily have some degree of flexibility and motivational factors.

Question 2

a.

Gender issues in many organizations are often dealt with by methods that attempt to eradicate gender differences, but this represents a misunderstanding of the essential issue. Studies have shown, of course, that greater personality differences exist among individuals than between genders, but at the same time there are unquestionable differences in the dynamics of working relationships and attitudes towards many aspects of work based on gender differences and the overall gender makeup of a team/organization. Variations in task performance and in the perception of duty both appear to exist along gender lines, at least to some degree, and effective management necessarily takes these differences into account when approaching the allocation of human resources.

There are also different dynamics in relationships, both with colleagues and peers and between supervisors/management and standard employees, based on the gender makeup of these relationships. Female managers of male employees will likely need to employ slightly different strategies in providing support and leadership than would a male leader with male employees, or a female leader with female employees. Political support is also viewed differently by all who are engaged in it (either as supporters or receivers of support) depending on the gender dynamic, and care must be taken both to avoid any appearance of impropriety and to provide genuine (and openly received) support in the proper situations. The negotiation of gender issues is not accomplished by their denial, but rather by accepting different dynamics and employing them to achieve equality and efficiency, which is both ethically and pragmatically advantageous to the organization.

b.

Each of these areas -- task, relationship, leadership, and political support -- has a direct and definite effect on bureaucratic performance, as does the consideration of gender when approaching each of these areas. Task allocation and perception can have a huge effect on individual performance, which necessarily has an effect on the overall efficiency and performance of the organization. The interpersonal relationships that necessarily develop can create tension if they develop negatively, but can increase productivity when properly maintained. Leadership's influence on organizational performance has perhaps had the greatest volume of study and literature of all of these areas; together with political support, effective leadership can create clear goals and greater levels of loyalty, increasing the performance capabilities of the organization by retaining talent.

Question 3

a.

The relationship between values and decision making can often be quite complex. First, there must be general agreement between decision makers on what the right values are, and furthermore there must also often be a prioritization of values that is case-dependent, as some values might be in conflict with each other in a given situation. There is also always some incongruence between an organizations values and the realities of the environment and the organization's operations, a large degree of incongruence signals a great deal of organizational dysfunction. Intact values that are readily apparent through the company's or organization's actions and not just in a mission statement are the hallmark of an organization with effective and consistent decision making capabilities.

Politics can have a huge degree of influence on the values that are used in decision making at a given moment; racial and gender status can often influence decisions for advancement, for instance, rather than performance-based values. Economic realities also cause value shifts, such as cost savings gaining in importance over other organizational values during times of economic shrinkage. All values are by definition based on some ethical system, and thus a values-based decision will necessarily be an ethical one, but economic and political realities can affect what ethical systems are put into place. When values are truly abandoned, as evidenced by the incongruity between values and reality as detailed above, it is highly unlikely that any sort of ethics are being employed in decision making, which leads to organizational disarray.

Growth, and the potential for growth, allows for the inclusion of aspirational values in decision making and organizational planning; though there are not always room for such values in organizational planning and decision making, the potential for growth necessarily creates the potential for change. Changes and advances in technology also lead to opportunities for shifting values and a reassessment of goals as both demands and capabilities change. Values that do not remain current, either in their practicality or their feasibility, become liabilities rather than assets in decision making. Increasing diversity in the workplace is an excellent demonstration of this fact, as previous values in the business world came to be viewed as simple favoritism and self-selection, and were replaced by the values of inclusion and a greater encouragement of achievement and equality.

Question 4

Organizational culture theory posits that there are certain beliefs held organization-wide that influence communication, effectiveness, and productivity. Essentially, a common culture that delineates proper sources of information, roles (responsibilities and expectations) of the various positions in the company's hierarchy and/or organization, and the methods and demeanor by which day-to-day operations should be conducted. A given organization's culture is often heavily tied to the values of that same organization, and both are necessarily reflected in the successes and failures of the organization.

There are both formal and informal groups within cultures, including organizational cultures, that can affect business performance and productivity. Peer groups that form in certain businesses and organizational structure can be especially resistant to changes that derive from sources outside these informal groups, for instance. The commitment to the peer group and the culture that fostered it is likely to be higher than a commitment to changes seen as a threat to the peer group, and modern organizations must incorporate an understanding of such cultural groups in proposed changes and ongoing strategies, utilizing the benefits that such groups provide will sidestepping any pitfalls.

There are also, of course, highly formal groups that form along the lines of an organization's structure and culture, such as independent departments and the ranks of upper management. The level interplay and communication between these groups has a direct effect on an organization's efficiency and efficacy, and such cultural relationships can be difficult to alter. instead, modern managerial theories insist that these group dynamics be understood rather than forced to conform, which yields far better results in retaining involvement and participation in organizational changes, priorities, values, and goals.

Question 5

Bureaucracies use established and shifting values in order to establish networks and methods of practice that are meant to perpetuate their existence and purpose. That is, a bureaucracy's primary goal (as is the goal of any organization) is to remain viable into the future, despite changes to its circumstances or purpose. The values of the bureaucracy are necessarily attuned to this goal, and the network design implemented is meant to ensure continued operational efficiency.

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