Organizational Culture This Chapter Presents a Recapitulation Research Proposal

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Organizational Culture

This chapter presents a recapitulation of the MLQ instrument's questions together with an analysis of the corresponding responses received. As previously stated in the earlier chapters, the purpose of this study was to examine the opinions, attitudes, and perceptions to develop a leadership-management culture model to which can be adapted as standard operating procedure in the organization with multi-cultural attributes the findings in this chapter are based on data analyses related to the following questions that were adapted using the well tested MLQ instrument; to guide and frame the research process in this study.

A cross-sectional survey was the main source used to collect data. This survey instrument was mailed to all supervisors/administrators and subordinate cafeteria manager/workers. One hundred twenty-nine surveys were distributed and 110 (85.5%) were returned completed and used in the survey data results. Surveys that were returned not completed in their entirety were not used for the purpose of this research project.

For presentational purposes, chapter four will be presented to report the internal consistency and reliability of the survey instrument as measured and outlined in the methodology chapter 3. Also covered in this section was the internal consistency and reliability of the survey instrument as determined by the data collected during the actual survey. Additionally this chapter will cover categorical variables, both independent and dependent. Demographic characteristics, including gender, ethnicity, country of origin, preferred/native language spoken, and educational background were measured, numerically and graphically. Then each question on the survey was analyzed. Frequency tables were used to display these results, as well as bar charts was used to graphically depict the data results. Finally, results for the continuous scaled variables ranged from 0 to 4 (0= not at all; 1 = once in a while; 2 = sometimes; 3 = fairly often; and 4 = frequently, if not always), were displayed in descriptive statistics and histograms. This display data obtained from the surveys were analyzed quantitatively in support of the proposed hypotheses.

As mentioned in chapter 3 - Methodology, it was the intention of the researcher to present data in respect to t-Test and NOVA, but upon further review, outcomes presented a different view. In support of T-test or ANOVA, regression analysis will not provide any further insights beyond the summary data derived from the MLQ scoring guidelines and the percentile analysis that have been developed question by question.

For the convenience of the readers, the hypotheses/null hypotheses are restated below and were used to guide the direction of the research:

Ho: There is a quantifiable relationship between culture and leadership style.

Ha: There is not a quantifiable relationship between culture and leadership style.

These hypotheses are not "all-conclusive" in the sense that there exists a high probability of their acceptance. Cultural or cross-cultural research often produces contradicting results, and both culturally-contingent and universalist perspectives provide strong along with some supporting evidence. Nevertheless, the hypotheses have been styled and formulated in such a way that the probability of their being true can be judged as slightly higher than the probability of their not being true. In any case, in this type of research both confirmation and disconfirmation of a particular position are equally interesting, equally important, and represent an equally significant contribution to the body of knowledge.

Of the total responses received to the MLQ, the Hispanic cohort represents the dominate group and is very concentrated in cultural/ethnic and educational attributes. The results of the review of the relevant literature concerning Organizational Culture and the results of the MLQ administration suggest that most people want to do a good job and are willing to go the extra mile in the workplace when called upon, but there are some important personal considerations involved in the analysis as well that must be taken into account and Simon (2006) supported this assertion. Simon (2006) further posited that if the null hypothesis is not rejected, this does not lead to the conclusion that no association or differences exist, but instead that the analysis did not detect any association or difference between the variables or groups.

The two hypotheses/null hypotheses are important and relevant to the study in order to accomplish the objective of the study. The objective of the study was to determine the extent that a company's management failure to fully understand and appreciate its workers' unique culture is likely the extent to which the company's leadership style will be ineffective in achieving its organizational goals; hence the need to specifically include and measure unique culture attributes.

Data gathered from the survey questionnaires has included demographics (Part I of the survey) such as gender, ethnicity, educational background, and employment and of the respondants. Exploratory testing indicated that participants tend to rate themselves higher on the MLQ scales than their followers' rating of them.

However, as the research involves comparisons of individuals' perceptions, rather than demonstrated behaviors, the data is considered to be an accurate representation of participants' ideas. Simon (2006) recommended that the researcher include a section on the data demographics such as explaining the age, gender, or relevant related information on the population.

Studies

As noted in the preceding chapter, this study used the MLQ instrument (copyright permission provided at Appendix ____) which is reproduced below together with an analysis of the responses received. Because the researcher used an established instrument, the instrument testing was not necessary (Sproull, 2004).

Based on the analysis of the statistical data derived from the survey instrument and an interpolation of the literature review findings, a synthesis and evaluative action plan is provided, followed by relevant recommendations and a summary of the chapter.

All participants were individually asked if they were able and willing to participate in the survey. Before given the questionnaire, each respondent was assured of their anonymity to participating in the MLQ and they were advised they were free to withdraw from participating at any point. They were told that the questionnaire is intended to describe their leadership style as they saw and perceived it. They were told to please answer all items on this answer sheet. If an item was irrelevant, or if they were unsure or do not know the answer, leave the item blank.

Each was given forty-five descriptive statements are listed on the MLQ questionnaire in Attachment (_). They were each told to judge how frequently each statement fits them. And finally, they were told that the word "others" may mean your peers, clients, direct reports, supervisors and/or all of these individuals.

Important: Which best describes you as a rater (required for processing):

I am at a higher organizational level than the person I am rating:

The person I am rating is at my organizational level:

I am at a lower organizational level than the person I am rating:

do not wish my organizational level to be known:

Participants:

Of the 129 targeted participants who were surveyed, 23 were supervisor/administrators (S) and raters above managers and 87 managers/workers (W) and raters below supervisors; and 19 (O) others who either chose not to respond, questionnaire defective or cared not to be known. Of the 129 questionnaires, 110 (85%) were acceptable to the study.

Of the 110 acceptable responses which are comprised of 23 (21%) supervisor or administrators (S) and 87 (79%) managers or workers (W).

Functions:

Administrators/supervisors (S):

Managers/Workers (W):

Of the 110 acceptable responses 12 (11%) were Male and 98 (89%) were Female.

Gender:

Male:

Female:

Of the 110 acceptable responses 21 (19%) were White, 67 (61%) were Hispanic, 20 (18%) were Black and 2 (2%) were Others.

Ethnic background:

White:

Hispanic:

Black:

Other:

Of the 110 acceptable responses 91 (83%) had at least 6 college credits, 12 (11%) have bachelor degrees, 3 (3%) have masters degree and 4 (4%) had other qualifications.

Educational Level:

Bachelors:

Masters:

Other:

Of the 110 acceptable responses 21 (19%) were White, 67 (61%) were Hispanic, 20 (18%) were Black and 2 (2%) were Others.

Country of origin:

North America:

South America:

Europe, except Africa and India:

Others - Caribbean, Africa and India:

Of the 110 acceptable responses 31 (28%) were English, 67 (61%) were Hispanic, 10 (9%) were French and 2 (2%) were Others.

Preferred/native language spoken/birth:

English:

Spanish:

French/Creole:

Others:

The following summations are the results of the question and outcomes of the MLQ questionnaire administered.

Results

Key:

Administrators/(S)upervisors

W) orkers/Managers

Provide other with assistance in exchange for their efforts. 3.7-3.5.

Re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate.

Fail to interfere until problems become serious. 0.4-0.5

Focus attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions, and deviations from standards.

Avoid getting involved when important issues arise. 3.6-0.7

Talk about my most important values and beliefs. 3.2-3.9

Am absent when needed. 0.4-0.8

Seek differing perspectives when solving problems. 3.4-3.5

Talk optimistically about the future. 3.3-3.6

Instill pride in other for being associated with me. 3.4-3.8

Discuss in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets.

Wait for things to go wrong before taking action. 0.2-0.1

Talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished. 3.7-3.9

Specify the importance of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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