Organizational Culture, Societal Culture, and Leadership Styles Research Proposal

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¶ … Organizational Culture, Societal Culture, and Leadership Styles

List of Tables (if tables used) viii

List of Figures (if figures used) ix

Leadership and Cultural Differences

Summary of Chapter and Organization of Remainder of the Study

Culture

Organizational Culture

Societal Culture

Leadership

Culture and Leadership

Leadership Theories

Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership Styles

Cultural and Leadership Attributes

Cultural Aspects of Organizational Leadership

Relationship between Organizational Leadership and Society

Current and Future Trends

Description of the Study Approach

Instruments/Measurements 105

Treatment / Intervention 116

Data Analysis

Field Tests Establishing Validity 119

Research Limitations

Validity and Reliability 122

Ethical Considerations 124

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 4. RESULTS

Introduction

Studies

Synthesis and Evaluative Action Plan

Recommendations

Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

Introductions

Summary of Major Aims and Objectives

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Limitation of Research Designs

Implications for Future Research

Chapter and Study Summary

REFERENCES 131

APPENDIX a. Organization of the Dissertation 168

APPENDIX B. CITI Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative 169

APPENDIX C. Invitation to Participate and Informed Consent Letter 170

APPENDIX D. Capella's IRB Institutional Review Board Application 172

Research Proposal on Organizational Culture, Societal Culture, and Leadership Styles Assignment

Table 1. Description of Transformational and Transactional Leadership 70

Table 2. Transformational / Transactional Leadership styles 71

Table 3. Bureaucratic, innovative and supportive organizational cultures 75

Table 4. Family-owned and operated organizational culture 76

Table 5. Masculine and collectivist organizational cultures 77

Table 6. Types of organizational citizenship behaviors 86

Table 7 Potential reasons why organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) influence work group and/or organizational performance 88

Table 8 Comparison of Competing Values Framework (CVF) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 108

CHAPTER 1.

Introduction

Leadership, or more specifically effective leadership, is every bit as crucial (if not more so) in a functional entity or organizations as it is throughout the world. Functional organizations are no different from others worldwide in terms of striving for performance in order to be globally competitive. As organizations and their environments have transformed quickly over the past years, a new style of leadership, one that is less bureaucratic and more democratic, is required in order to ensure the organization's survival and performance (Johnson, 1995).

This dissertation focused on the relationship between organizational culture, societal culture and leadership styles. In undertaking any research, it is necessary to initially establish the need for such a study and to clearly set out the intentions of the research. By so doing, a point of reference is provided against which the outcomes of the research can be assessed. This is the intention of this chapter in which the research context is set, and the aim and objectives are defined. A brief discussion of the scope of the research, research methodology and main contribution to knowledge of the study is also presented followed by an outline of the way the study is to be researched as depicted in Appendix a.

Given the increased globalization of industrial organizations and increased interdependencies among nations, the need for better understanding of cultural influences on leadership and organizational practices has never been greater. Situations that leaders and would-be-leaders must face are highly complex, constantly changing, and difficult to interpret. More than ever before, managers of international firms face fierce and rapidly changing international competition. The trend toward the global economic village is clear, and the 21st century may very well become known as the century of the "global world" (McFarland, Semen, & Childress, 1993).

This dissertation focused on the relationship between organizational culture, societal culture and leadership styles. The aim of this chapter is to provide the introduction, background and motivation for this research. The problem statement will be discussed, the aims will be specified and the research model will be explained. The paradigm perspectives of the research will be given, including the relevant paradigms, meta-theoretical statements and theoretical models. Thereafter, the research design and methodology will be presented and the chapter layout will be given.

Due to these facts, it is important for firms to be more aware of leadership style and its interrelationship with corporate culture because the fit of both variables has been noted to determine the success of firms in the future (Cartwright and Cooper, 1993; Carey and Ogden, 1998; Block, 2003) since the diverse behaviors and strength from different races and gender are likely to diminish in strong cultures as people attempt to fit in (Deal and Kennedy, 1982; Silverthorne, 2004).

Past studies show that a positive corporate culture and effective leadership style can enhance organizational commitment and increase the consistency of employee behavior (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Lok and Crawford, 2004). Leaders empower subordinates through their hierarchical position (Hirschhorn, 1997). The role of hierarchical position brings about some changes in leadership roles. The leader willingly becomes dependent on followers and vulnerable to their mistakes because he or she is supported by the empower subordinates. A leader hoping to manage their vulnerability actually makes the organization more vulnerable. It leads to open organizational culture (p. 139). The postmodern organization sustains a "culture of being open to others," i.e., a "culture of openness." Without such a culture the postmodern organization is likely to fail.

As leadership research has grown and expanded, an even broader focus has emerged which encompasses organizational culture (Schein, 1985). For leaders to be effective, according to this view, issues related to the culture must be clearly identified. The study of leadership coincides with the study of cultures; how leaders evolve from societal dictates and how societal dictates mold and evolve new leaders. Over the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people.

Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organizations. Leaders and their styles influence the way people understand society. The leader's job is to create conditions for the team to be effective (Ginnett, 1996). It is very important that an organization understand the cultural environment and recognize which type of leadership style best serves the organization's culture in order to ensure operational continuity. This research study encompasses the question of what relationship there is between organizational culture, societal culture and leadership styles.

Research on organizational culture has increased over the last three decades because researchers have concluded that culture is an important factor that contributes to the overall effectiveness of an organization (Hofstede, 1998a). Organizational culture is a cognitive phenomenon, and employees have common norms, values and beliefs; consequently, it becomes a direct link to understanding and influencing how people in an organization think and act (Trice & Beyer, 1993). The researcher sets to explore the relationship between culture and leadership and to determine the extent of cultural influence on leadership. As leadership research has grown and expanded, an even broader focus has emerged which encompasses organizational culture (Stein, 1985b). For leaders to be effective, according to this view, issues related to the culture must be clearly identified.

Before defining leadership, leadership empirical studies have focused on the characteristics of efficient leadership, leadership practices or the skills and characteristics of a leader. How should a leader go about the task of coping with change? What types of behavior should one use to be most effective? What are the special leadership dynamics that occur in the typical organizations? Is there a preferred leadership model for use in the typical organizations? Is there a leadership model that is uniquely unsuited for use in the typical organizations? Leadership is one of the world's oldest preoccupations. It occurs in all groups of people regardless of geography, culture, or nationality. Leadership in organizations often plays a critical role, and is frequently, although not always, one of the major drivers of the success or failure of a company (Bass, 1990).

Leadership is one of the world's oldest preoccupations (Bass, 1990). It occurs in all groups of people regardless of geography, culture, or nationality. Leadership in organizations often plays a critical role, and is frequently, although not always, one of the major drivers of the success or failure of a company (Carl & Javidan, 2001; Dorfman & Howell, 1997).

As leadership research has grown and expanded, and even broader focus has emerged which encompasses organizational culture (Stein, 1985b). For leaders to be effective, according to this view, issues related to the culture must be clearly identified. One such cultural issue that is relevant to studies of leadership is the concept of change (Ouchi, 1981). Leaders and the organizations they serve must be able to adapt to change (i.e., shift to other, more appropriate behaviors), as the environments shifts and develop. Baron (1995) found that organizations that have tried to resist change in the external environment (e.g., new technology, mergers and acquisitions, global competition, environmental concerns, unstable economy) have experienced more difficulties than organizations that have responded positively to change. Leaders must also be able to successfully manage the internal environments of the areas they oversee through regulation of such features as budgeting, project management, labor cost, recruitment and retention, policies and procedures, and federal and state regulations. Managing the internal environments and… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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