Organizational Theory and National Security Essay

Pages: 4 (1270 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Military

Organizational Theory and National Security

Articulating a defense strategy towards homeland security involves an implementation through a complex chain of international and national security institutions. The defense department (like DHS) is not a business entity but an organization that institute policies for the betterment of the country's security. Unfortunately, theorists have closely equated Organizational Theory and business theory in some instances. Organizational theory focuses on the way people congregate every day to work on a mutual goal to create a public or private good (Dunphy, 2010).

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While there are more schools of thoughts used to explain economic systems, this also applies to organizations. Military officers tend to have a single viewpoint towards the definition of organizations. This is because military officers think in a uniform manner as fostered by their military training trend. On the contrary, organizations are conceived in various ways and such diversity in viewpoints promotes difficulties in managing national security institutions. Various viewpoints of organizational theory are necessary for defense leaders to confront national and global defense challenges (Florent-Treacy, 2009). In case organizations' leadership was based on science and mechanics, we would not have had procurement weapons going into budgets or companies going out of business. We all have different thoughts about how organizations should run and function. There is no single universal formula, model, or theory of organization for running effective organizations (Whelan, 2012).

Essay on Organizational Theory and National Security Assignment

Organizations in the perspective of machines: for decades, human beings have earned a living from the external context of formal institutions. Agrarian and pre-agrarian societies were founded on independence and self-sufficiency. With the advent of evolution, civilization enhanced the livelihoods of people making them earn a living through formal organizations. These organizations became some instruments used to reach goals. Organizations were viewed in terms of how tasks and roles fit together like machines and people were given tasks and roles to tackle (Dunphy, 2010).

Unlike machines' dependence on parts for their functionality, organizations require tasks and roles to be done in a coordinated manner. The management function is to establish all these roles and make sure people deliver their assigned duties. This leadership orientation is related to control and command notion. In its extreme context, supervisors tend to control and direct employees to act in the required manner (Dunphy, 2010). Fredrick Taylor has made remarkable contributions in what is popularly referred to as scientific management. He believed that work must be learnt where employees must follow what science stipulates them to do in order to achieve the highest efficiency. When organizational goals and strategies remain unchanged over time, work routinization could increase efficiency. Nevertheless, emergence of new demands dissipates notable disadvantages. If organizations are viewed as machines, it means that focus is directed on the effective functionality of the parts. This involves clear lines of communication and responsibility.

Organizations in the context organisms: organizations are viewed as an operational organic system such as the human body. In this light, the focal point of the organization shifts from the mission and goals to metabolism and needs. For the body to function, inputs such as affection, food, and water are necessary. In addition, people must adapt to the changing environment. Organisms could be defined as systems comprising of numerous parts each belonging to a subsystem. For instance, the spleen and the heart are parts of the circulatory system in the body. Subsystems are based on interdependence. If one system fails, it leads to an automatic failure in another system. Effectiveness is attained by proper balance and coordination among efficient subsystems (Florent-Treacy, 2009).

If national security institutions are viewed as organisms, their subsystems and needs must be acknowledged. In addition, we must acknowledge their interrelationship and the processes making the overall system work. For instance, combat commandants and military Services are interdependent. Reforming or transforming the national security industry could… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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