Organized Crime in the Millennium Counterfeiting Term Paper

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Organized Crime in the Millennium

Counterfeiting is stated in one work to involve: "...extensive logistics and a complex, structured, flexible and reactive organization from the manufacturing phase to sales..." In a method that misuses "...the advances, methods and channels of lawful economy..." (Union des Fabricants, 2004) This research study is one that conducts a qualitative review of peer-reviewed literature relating the subject of organized crime. The nature of organized crime is one that is logistically complex and structured in a flexible yet highly complex hierarchical system that takes every opportunity to take advantage of the legal economy. This research study will illustrate the global problem of organized crime and the implementations for detection and prosecution of the organized crime groups throughout the world.

ORGANIZED CRIME in the MILLENNIUM

RESEARCH STUDY

List of Illustrations

Abbreviations

Glossary

Preface

Introduction

Review of Literature

Results

Methodology

Discussion

Findings of the Study

Conclusion

References

ORGANIZED CRIME in the MILLENNIUM

RESEARCH STUDY

LIST of ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure 1: Continuum for Contemporary Enterprise Development

Figure 2: The 'Cressey Model' of Organized Crime

Figure 3: Von Lampe: An Analytical Model of Organized Crime

ABBREVIATIONS

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MLATS - Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties

RICO - Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations

GLOSSARY

PREFACE

RESEARCH STUDY

INTRODUCTION

Term Paper on Organized Crime in the Millennium Counterfeiting Is Assignment

If one searches via the Google search engine online the web one finds that "organized crime" is a widespread problem which has interwoven itself among every sector in daily life and a problem that holds society tightly within its self-serving grip. This is not only to speak of the common criminal individual but speaks of very meticulously and highly orchestrated criminal acts which include laundering of money, transport of illicit drugs and weapons as well as nuclear products.

REVIEW of LITERATURE

According to the work of Plywaczewski, Ph.D. At the University of Bilaystok, Poland the transnational criminal organizations national authorities in the countries of Germany, the U.K., the Nederlands, and the U.S. state findings that groups deserving international attention are as follows:

Chinese Triads;

Colombian cartels,

Jamaican posses,

Japanese jakusa,

Sicilian mafia,

Russian criminal organizations and West African groups such as Nigerian organized crime groups. (as cited in Plywaczewski, 2003)

Chinese triads are inclusive of: "a whole range of criminal activities, including extortion, drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling and sideline businesses in Chinese videos, books, newspapers and entertainment services." (Plywazceski, 2003) This includes as well "heavy participation in heroin trafficking toward U.S. And Europe and smuggling of arms and smuggling operation of illegal aliens to the U.S. And Europe is stated to be "intensive." (Plywazceski, 2003)

Information reported in the work of Plywaczewski (2003) cite the Austrian Police as stating that leadership is located in Beijing of these specific groups and has a hierarchic structure with several levels. Separate cells of the organization are isolated "both from the outside and the inside" which provides a guarantee that a given cell doesn't have knowledge of the functions of the cell operating directly above it which is the group which gives instruction of tasks to accomplish to members of the lower cell with in the hierarchy. Stated as the primary tasks of the organization's leadership in Beijing are the tasks as follows:

1) Conduct a recruiting campaign in appropriate media (the press), with the purpose of finding persons who want to leave the country, 2) Determine the fee for the illegal smuggling, depending on the country of destination (target country), 3) Identify an appropriate route to the target country;

4) Provide appropriate guidance to the smuggled persons concerning behavior at specific stages of the transfer;

5) Obtain Korean passports in South Korea and send them, via DHL, to Austria;

6) Completely falsify or remake the passports and other key documents (for instance, certificates for technical professions, health certificates, etc.); and 7) Coordinate actions and manage cooperating cells. (Plywaczewski, 2003)

It is related that prestige is gained by groups that are the most effective at the smooth transfer of individuals through and across borders.

The work of David L. Carter entitled: "International Organized Crime," a publication of the School of Criminal Justice Michigan State University reports that in a recent survey of U.S. And foreign police organizations, intelligence agencies, government officials, and corporate security officials targeted organized crime in Eastern Europe..." with results suggesting "rapid growth in Eastern European organized crime which threatens the United States." (Carter,

Other significant findings of the study reported include:

International organized crime is becoming more entrepreneurial;

Short-term alliances between criminal groups are growing;

Crime cartels are focusing on a greater diversity of commodities;

Transnational criminal alliances are increasing;

Eastern European criminal groups will use violence and change their structures to maximize profits." (Carter, nd)

Changes taking place in Europe are contributing to expansion in criminal opportunities include:

1) Implementation of the provisions of the European Community via the Single European Act;

2) the socio-political impact of the Warsaw Pact's Breakdown;

3) Movement of Eastern Europe countries toward market-based economies;

4) the reunification of Germany and increased links between Eastern and Western Europe; and 5) Government instability in Eastern Europe leading to fewer controls on crime." (Carter, nd)

Carter cites that basic characteristics of organized crime to include:

1) Profit accumulation;

2) Longevity;

3) an organizational structure, which facilitates criminal activity;

4) the use of violence;

5) Efforts to corrupt government officials, police and corporate officials." (Carter, nd)

Organized crime is "increasing...viewed as 'entrepreneurial crime' because of its attraction to any commodity which can be profitably exploited. The following chart illustrates the 'Continuum for Contemporary Crime Development'

Continuum for Contemporary Enterprise Development

Source: Carter

Carter additionally states that the study findings include the fact that globalization has contributed to the increasingly international scope of organized crime as well as have a new generation of crime cartels because the "basic nature of organized crime groups has shifted. One official in the study stated: "Today's diverse organized crime groups are operationally more like corporate raiders, only the criminals use violence and illegal methods to solidify their market and profit." (Carter, nd) There is also a new threat from organized crime in Russia, which "threatens the democraticization process and attempt to develop foreign trade. Organized crime in Russian includes:

1) Drug-trafficking;

2) Theft of consumer goods;

3) Theft of intellectual property and nuclear materials; and 4) Racketeering. (Carter, nd)

Efforts for control of organized crime control in Russia has been slowed due to:

1) Bribery of police;

2) the preoccupation of the government with stabilization of economic and political systems in Russia;

3) Lack of effective communication with and between law enforcement agencies outside of Russia;

4) a 19% loss or police officers during 1992 in Russia due to police involvement in organized crime; and (5) high levels of arms trading in Russia. (Carter, nd)

Stated to be two new areas targeted by organized crime are "computer-related crimes and high technology targets." (Carter,

Stated to be responses to the problem of organized crime is the development and implantation of the following agencies:

National Criminal Intelligence Service. This British strategic intelligence group focuses on drug trafficking and global crime. Specific attention is directed at Eastern European crime groups.

Europol. The European Community intelligence clearinghouse dealing with all aspects of crime affecting the twelve member states. Although Europol is still in the development stage, it will eventually serve as an important resource for those concerned with global organized crime.

Interpol. The International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) is a clearinghouse on crime, which provides information to law enforcement agencies worldwide. In addition to its Analytical Criminal Intelligence Unit, Interpol has added four new organized crime analysis units: OSCA for South American crime gangs, MACANDRA for the Italian Mafia, ROCKERS for European outlaw motorcycle groups, and EASTWIND for Asian organized crime groups.

National Law Enforcement Groups. A number of countries have established special organizations in addition to their traditional law enforcement agencies to deal with global organized crime. These include: the Direzione Investigative Antimafia (DIA) in Italy, the Terrorist Financial Unit (TFU) for Northern Ireland, and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) in the United States.

The work of Samuel D. Porteus entitled; "The Threat from Transnational Crime: An Intelligence Perspective" states that: "The scope and the power of groups involved in transnational crime has unsettled governments around the world. Porteus Lacots, former head of the DGSE the intelligence service in France has in place is focus on the role that transnational crime plays in major frauds against government. LaCoste the primary funding source for the organized crime group the "European La Cosa Nostra is "manipulation of public funds associated with regulated markets and major government subsidy programs like those of the European Union (EU)." (Porteus, 1996) the fact is that drug money is only the secondary source of finance for this faction of organized crime. LaCoste is noted as having stated that crime syndicates have defrauded the European Commission "billions of dollars in major fraud against European Union (EU) programs such as agricultural and structural subsidies and various tax evasion schemes." (Porteus, 1996) Porteus states that transnational and related crimes result in… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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