Annotated Bibliography: Organized Crime Uses Poverty

Pages: 5 (1460 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Criminal Justice  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] 6. Wheaton, Elizabeth M., Edward J. Schauer, and Thomas V. Galli. 2010. "Economics of Human Trafficking." International Migration 48(4):114-141.

ARTICLE NAME: The Perfect Business': Human Trafficking and Lao-Thai Cross Border Migration

1. There are several research areas in this study: is the language of economism appropriate to human trafficking; why does economism fail to illuminate how workers are recruited into the local sex industries along the Lao-Thai border; and what are the unintended impacts of anti-trafficking activism along fluid borders, such as the Lao-Thai border?

2. Molland's hypothesis is that "the implicit economism within trafficking discourses not only fails to account for the nuances in the way in which cross-border oscillations take place, but also produces disjunctures between anti-trafficking programmes and the social world they attempt to alter" (Molland, 2010, p.833).

3. Molland examines the economic constructs of flows and disjunctures at the Lao-Thai border to examine whether traditional views of economism are applicable. This involves an examination of cross-border migration rates and the reasons that people may choose to cross the border.

4. Although there is danger in crossing the Laos-Thai border, Molland concludes that for many Laotians, the promise of freedom in Thailand makes the risk appropriate. Moreover, the kinship ties that extend over the border help contribute to a fluid border. This helps explain why an individual sex worker who has not been compelled into the trade would agree to cross the border, despite lower pay, facilitating her entry into the human trafficking market because of the ability to manipulate her once she has crossed the border.

5. This article is important because it helps explain some of the motivations for victims who willingly enter into a human trafficking agreement, without understanding the vulnerabilities they face once displaced from their homelands.

6. Molland, Sverre. 2010. "The Perfect Business': Human Trafficking and Lao-Thai Cross

Border Migration." Development and Change 41(5):831-855.

ARTICLE TITLE: The Diffusion of Global Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking

1. The researcher examine how society should frame human trafficking in the context of transnational crime and how that frame impact national policy choices.

2. The authors hypothesize that "national policy choices are conditioned on the prior and socially defined processes of issue framing. Once a dominant frame is broadly accepted, state adopt policies that are appropriate to their situation as interpreted through the selected frame" (Summers and Lloyd, 2010, p.3).

3. The authors examined the criminalization of transnational human trafficking in national law and treaty ratification that obligates states parties to criminalize trafficking. They also examined historical evidence to determine the prevalence of trafficking in identified areas as well as local trends in trafficking and how those trends may have responded to trafficking laws.

4. While many people approach human trafficking as a human rights issue, what the researchers discovered was that the contextual framing of the issue helps shape how countries respond to the problem. Framing it as a transnational criminal issue rather than a human rights issue allows countries and criminals to rationally anticipate externalities, which should drive down rates of participation in human trafficking.

5. This results of this survey suggest that emphasizing human rights, which has been the approach taken by many anti-trafficking organizations, is not going to be the most effective way to end participation in human trafficking. Instead, by framing trafficking in a way that emphasizes potential consequences, for both individuals and for nations, the impact of potential consequences should impact choices that would otherwise have led to active or passive participation in human trafficking.

6. Simmons, Beth and Paulette Lloyd. 2010. "The Diffusion of Global Law: Transnational

Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking." Retrieved September 22, 2013



Molland, Sverre. 2010. "The Perfect Business': Human Trafficking and Lao-Thai Cross Border

Migration. Development and Change 41(5):831-855.

Simmons, Beth and Paulette Lloyd. 2010. "The Diffusion of Global Law: Transnational Crime

and the Case of Human Trafficking." Retrieved September 22, 2013 (

Tripp, Tara M. 2012. "Clandestine Partnerships: The Link Between Human Trafficking and Organized Crime in Metropolitan Atlanta." Masters Thesis, Kennesaw State University. Retrieved September 22, 2013 (

Turner, Jackie and Liz Kelly. 2012. "Trade Secrets: Intersections between Diasporas and Crime

Groups in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Cite This Annotated Bibliography:

APA Format

Organized Crime Uses Poverty.  (2013, September 22).  Retrieved August 23, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Organized Crime Uses Poverty."  22 September 2013.  Web.  23 August 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Organized Crime Uses Poverty."  September 22, 2013.  Accessed August 23, 2019.