Osteoarthritis (Oa) According to Medical Doctors Siddiqui Thesis

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Osteoarthritis (OA)

According to medical doctors Siddiqui and Laborde (Osteoarthritis), OA is the most common form of progressive joint disease worldwide, affecting 16 million (6%) American adults. They state that age is the strongest determinant of OA and that the prevalence of OA at all joint sites progressively increases with age. Estimates these doctors provide based on the radiographic evidence of knee OA are as follows: 25-30% of persons aged 45-64 years, 60% of persons older than 65 years, and more than 80% of persons older than 75 years. Siddiqui and Laborde explain that the main cause of OA is daily stress applied to the joints, particularly weight-bearing joints such as the ankle, knee and hip. However, heredity is also a factor and researchers have identified a gene for OA.

OA results from both the combined effect of tissue damage and an immune reaction to that damage with the changes resulting from repetitive microtrauma usually seen in the load-bearing areas of the articular cartilage (Siddiqui and Laborde). OA usually begins with the swelling of the cartilage due to the increased synthesis of proteoglycans, which reflect an effort by the chondrocytes to repair the damage sustained; as the disease progresses the thickness of the joint surface uis reducted and the level of proteoglycans is remarkably diminished (Siddiqui and Laborde). Symptoms listed by Siddiqui and Laborde include pain, localized tenderness, loss of motion and the feeling of a cracking sound.

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Hospitalizations for OA soared from about 322,000 in 1993 to 735,000 in 2006, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) which found that OA was the principal diagnosis for about 90% of 547,000 knee surgery hospitalizations and about 50% of hip replacement hospitalizations (Hospitalizations for osteoarthritis rising sharply, Newswise). Also in 2006, AHRQ reported that 45- to 64-year-olds accounted for 38% of all OA, compared with 25% in 1997.

Gout

What is gout?

Gout is a kind of arthritis that can cause an attack of sudden burning pain, stiffness, and swelling in a joint, usually a big toe (Gout, WebMD). Gout can eventually harm joints, tendons, and other tissues.

TOPIC: Thesis on Osteoarthritis (Oa) According to Medical Doctors Siddiqui Assignment

Approximately 1 million people in the United States suffer from attacks of gout (Gout and hyperuricemia). Gout is nine times more common in men than in women and it predominantly attacks males after puberty, with a peak age of 75; in women, gout usually occurs after menopause (Gout and hyperuricemia). The higher prevalence of gout in elderly persons may also reflect an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, high rates of diuretic treatment for hypertension and congestive heart failure, and the use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid

Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. Recently, researchers have found that a genetic risk score based on three genes that influence serum levels of uric acid are associated with a 40-fold increased risk for gout (Bankhead, 2008). The study confirmed the association of SCL2A9, a urate transporter in the kidney, and identified two other genes thought to be renal urate transporters (Bankhead, 2008). Other… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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