Capstone Project: Parenting Education for Teen Mothers

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[. . .] Multi-purpose programs

Most of the parenting education intervention programs are aimed at developing parent-infant interaction, multi-purpose services such as stress management, parenting skills development, and supportive child care. Most of the studies being reviewed by the researchers were observed to have smaller sample size with lack of suitable or appropriate comparison group mothers, and inconsistent measurements. The studies have indicated that six months program with weekly sessions and group as well as one-on-one sessions is most advantageous for teen mothers in developing parenting skills in them. Mollborn (2007) investigated the influence of teenage parenthood on the material outcomes of parents, specifically the teen mothers. The most important and negative outcome of teenage parenthood on both mothers and fathers was observed to be lack of education opportunities and non-completion of education post-high school. The author has reviewed pertinent literature to determine that teen parenthood has adverse impact on education outcome of both the parenting partners. The girls are even worse at attending post-high school forums of education. This not only result sin lack of economic opportunities but also the lack of social status that both or either of the parents could have achieved while not having a child in early teens.

This is an important study that holistically deals with the socio-economic outcomes for teen parents and the study is based on a reasonably large sample size. The primary data on which the study was based comes from the four waves of National Education Longitudinal Studies called NELS in years 1988, 1992, 1994, and 2000. Thus, the data is consistent and involves a large number of teen parents and non-parents for results comparison. The large size of sample is representative from the fact that in 1988 NELS involved 25000 students from 1050 schools. Education attainment was kept as the dependent variable is this study. The study observed key differences in teenage parents and non-parents. It was observed that average teenage mothers had 11.9 years of education equal to a high-school degree whereas the non-parent teens being surveyed had 2 years more education as compared to teen parent groups. They had 13.9 years of education. Another significant difference was that teen fathers attain even less education than teen mothers, approximately 0.4 years less than teen mothers. This indicates that since teen fathers have the responsibility to run their home, they are more likely to quit the education and take up jobs.

The roots of teenage parents to their behavior were also one factor that resulted in their parenthood. It was observed in the study that the teenage parents were educationally and socioeconomically disadvantaged even before bearing the child as compared to the teenage non-parents. Even before becoming parents, the teen mother received reduced price lunches and other social support services. This study was important in identifying major pre-conditions that resulted in teen parents' disadvantages they had to face after bearing a child in early teens. The teen mothers as well as the fathers were not academically sound as compared to their non-parent peers even before in eighth grade. The educational disadvantage of teenage parents started from eighth grade because of their socio-economic disadvantage and poor educational results. The material resources needed for the teen mothers were much greater than the non-parent teen girls. The study establishes a positive relationship between teen parenthood and education penalty.

The author has also identified the possible policy actions that governments can take to avoid the educational disadvantage of such marginalized parents that have children in early teens. Mothers are specifically identified as a potential group that can take advantage of any primary health and care facilities in their vicinities. The author has specifically emphasized the need for providing financial aid for teen mothers for completing high school and post-secondary education. This will help reduce the need for paid work that consumes much of the time of teen mothers and this directly reduces the amount of time and resources that teen mothers spend on education.

The study clearly develops a link between educational disadvantage and becoming teen parent. The study is exclusive and provides a deep insight into the socio-economic and other factors that may induce the teens becoming teen parents. This study also helps identify the pre-parent life of these surveyed teens. The teen parents had socio economic and other disadvantages even before becoming parents. The girls already had issues of underperformance in their academic life. Thus, schools and private NGOs can introduce educational and awareness programs as soon as 9th grade in the high school to educate the students regarding potential implications of becoming teen parents.

The girls can specifically be addressed in such programs. This way the policy makers will be working to prevent such cases of early parenthood and adolescent pregnancies. It may also be mentioned that once the girls have become teen mothers, the associated costs to their rehabilitation as fully participative and functioning member of society is difficult and time taking process. Thus, to minimize the negative implications and control the costs of unplanned and adolescent pregnancies, schools and social organizations should adopt a pro-active support. A behavioral survey in schools can be conducted to identify students showing tendency of becoming teen parents. And then such students can be offered counseling classes whereas pros and cons of becoming teen parents can be highlighted. This will also provide a reasonable chance to the would-be teen mothers of taking into account the potential implications their becoming mothers would have on them as well as the child.

Key, Gebregziabher, Marsh and O'Rourke, (2008) also identified the importance of early intervention program to prevent teen mother occurrences. The authors observed that as much as 50% reduction in birth rates for teen mother was observed in the study that involved 63 teen girls. The most effective procedures adopted by the researcher were medical care assistance, case management, and group meetings. However, group meeting resulted as being least productive in preventing second or subsequent births in teen mothers. Barnet, Liu, DeVoe, Alperovitz-Bichell and Duggan (2007) proposed a home-visiting parenting program for the teen mothers. The author premised that such program that involves home-visiting by the nurses and other professionals may result in improvement of parenting skills and knowledge, maternal life, and the primary care of child. The maternal life has a direct link with the improvement in parenting abilities of teen mothers. The authors identified many problems with teen mother going through repeated pregnancies. These are school dropout, depression, anxiety, and poor parenting by these mothers. The lack of development of mothering skills is an essential impediment in effective parenting.

122 eligible parenting adolescent mothers were selected to be administered with a parenting program based on home visiting. 84 out of these 122 mothers completed a baseline assessment and the results being compared against a control group. The pregnant adolescents were aged 14 to 18 years. These were low-income and of African-American race. Trained professionals were paired with each teen mother. The services were provided through the second birthday of the child. Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), repeat pregnancy, School status and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) were self reported by the participants of group. Parenting scores for the intervention group was observed to be 5.5 times better as compared to controlled group. The intervention teens were 3.5 times more likely to continue education however the program was not effective in terms of repeated pregnancy prevention and depression.

The programs being reviewed in the literature review segment highlights three major forms of interventions programs. Firstly, the use of group-based sessions for parenting education is most widely used intervention model. The second pervasive model in teen parenting education is home visiting but this has limited role in preventing repeated pregnancies that is an important impediment in achieving good health of mother and the child. The one-on-one sessions are most successful in their outcomes but only when held on weekly basis. The attention and monitoring that teen mothers receive through individual care is most useful when carried out by the pediatricians. The ability of pediatricians to influence the parenting style, behavior, and aptitude of teen mothers is more as compared to other professionals such as nurses and paramedics or social support specialists. Following section will present a parenting education program for teen mothers that are aimed at improving the parenting skills of teen mothers. This program will incorporate the key findings and address the limitations in existing teen mother parenting education programs.

III- Teen Mother Empowerment Program Series (TMEPS)

Introduction

The program is aimed at providing a unique teen mother education program aimed at improving the parenting skills of those adolescent mothers having difficulty in raising their new born babies. The review of literature has identified that the long-term impact of the programs already developed by researchers was limited or that effective monitoring mechanism was not present. The literature review also provided some background knowledge that programs aimed at correctly identifying the needs of teen mothers were beneficial in concluding that teen mothers are in need of primary… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Parenting Education for Teen Mothers.  (2013, July 3).  Retrieved July 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/parenting-education-teen-mothers/4393366

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"Parenting Education for Teen Mothers."  Essaytown.com.  July 3, 2013.  Accessed July 17, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/parenting-education-teen-mothers/4393366.