Research Paper: Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change

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Parenting Styles & Alcoholism in College Students

Parenting Styles in Relation to Alcoholism & Social Change

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake

Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles

Frequency & Beginning of Alcoholism

Theoretical Implications

Measures for Controlling Alcoholism in Adolescence

Sponsors of Community Awareness Programs

Limitations of the Community Awareness Programs

Lack of Interest from Sponsors

Differences in Other Ethnic Groups & Jewish Community

Ethical Implications

New York Liquor Authority

The given research is intended to develop a relationship between the parenting styles experienced by a child during his childhood and his/her propensity to develop alcoholism during the adolescence especially in freshman college year. Empirical evidences derived from prior researches have helped in developing a conclusion that there is a considerable relationship between the parenting styles and the degree of alcoholism in teenagers and adolescents. On the other hand, there are also other researches that predict the initiation of alcoholism in children and teenagers. The given research paper helps in developing a relationship between the parenting styles and the degree of alcoholism in college students. The rationale of this relationship is based on social change theories such as family system theory and social learning theory. Furthermore, the research paper presents a set of measures which would be effective in controlling alcoholism in adolescents. The given measures require the support of government, entrepreneurs, social figures, psychologists, community heads and the parents and have been devised considering ethnic and racial implications of the responses from the participants. The research paper further discusses the role of New York Liquor Authority in detail.

Introduction

Alcoholism is an increasing problem in our youth, especially college freshman students. Where pressure and a desire to act as an independent individual is overwhelming enough to force these students to opt for excessive alcohol usage. The parenting styles of the parents and guardians also have a considerable impact in this regard. Children having strained relationship with their parents tend to show inclination for alcoholism in later parts of their lives. There are various studies present (discussed below) which would help in demonstrating a relationship between alcoholism and the parenting styles faced by alcohol addicts in their childhood. All these studies help us reach conclusive evidence that there is a direct relationship between parenting styles and alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents and teenagers.

There are various researches (Changalwa et al., 2012; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007) conducted by independent bodies which provide similar indications; according the report published by bbc.co.uk in 2011, a research was conducted by Independent think-tank demos which states that "The best approach was for parents to be warm and affectionate until the age of 10 and then combine this with more discipline. Then at ages 15 to 16 there should be more supervision. It found high levels of parental attachment when children were aged less than five significantly reduced the chances of them drinking excessively later in life."

Parenting styles have a considerable impact on the alcohol intake of their children (Changalwa et al., 2012; Bahr & Hoffman, 2012; Peckham & Lopez, 2007). Since there are theoretical evidences present that children learn from their parents and try to develop behavioral patterns in accordance with the way they are treated by parents and guardians. It is important that parents develop a healthy relationship with their offspring which would help them develop strong personalities not opting for destructive patterns of behavior even under peer pressure. This research identifies the relationship between parenting styles and alcoholism in college freshman students under neutral as well as ethnic settings. Furthermore, recommendations are also devised for combating alcoholism in youngsters.

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

With today's uncertain economic conditions, political turmoil, and other social factors combined with weak family structure cause a strain in general public, many of them perceive alcohol as a common way of coping with these problems (Rice & Arsdale, 2010). Alcohol is a readily available commodity all across the globe especially in western parts of the world; therefore practically everyone within the age limit of eighteen to twenty one has an access to it. Where using alcohol has also become part of today's lifestyle and seems to be having no impact on the well-being of its user although an over-use has its side effects. Other than the long-term physical impact, the sudden mental impacts may affect one's behavioral patterns to great extinct.

There are various studies which support an idea that alcoholism is caused by two distinguished factors: environment in which the subject operates and also the hereditary traits (Baumrind, 1991). According to Njenga (2005), the environment plays a key role in deciding the alcohol consumption pattern of an adolescent or even a teenager. The key factors which play a major role in bringing up a child are one's family, environment of the family setting, peer pressure and overall culture of the house. The experiences that a child encounters in the early childhood either develop or discourage certain pattern of behaviors. Many parents use reinforcing techniques to trigger a certain pattern of desired behavior in the child. For this purpose, patterns usually attempt to set limits on the children in the pursuit of controlling undesired behavior. For this purpose, many of them try to act like role models whereas others try to choose suitable environment settings.

Parenting styles are child up-brining techniques used by the parents to control and limit their children's behavior. In theory, there are three typical parenting behaviors known as Authoritarian, Permissive and Authoritative (Baumrind, 1991). Another parenting style was identified by Maccaboy and Martin (1983). This parenting style was known as uninvolved parent. These parenting styles have a tendency of affecting the personality of a child to a great deal.

The nature of parenting style has been considered as a dominant factor in deciding the overall outlook of a child's personality. Be it social behavior, social competence, academic performance or other psychological patterns of behavior, parenting styles tend to have a considerable impact on the children.

According to Baumrind (1991), there are certain behavioral patterns which are directly correlated to the parenting style. His research explained that the children with of the parent with authoritative parenting style have a tendency of exhibiting a most desirable behavior. They are expected to be friendly, energetic and robust individuals with a great sense of accomplishment and content. Furthermore, self-control is another major trait of these children. However, authoritative parenting style is based on a rational and logic-based relationship where the needs and desires of the children are well-respected but they are also duly monitored for a behavioral control. This is the reason why the child feel valued and controlled at the same time. The resultant is a stable individual who can refrains from bearing negative attitude in the given circumstances and scenarios. On the other hand, the children with the low self-respect and self-control are more prone to alcohol and drug addiction (Brenan, 1986).

There are various studies such as the ones conducted by Johnson and Padina (1991) which presented to support the notion that adolescents who attempt not to opt for alcoholism bear higher self-esteem and confidence then alcohol addicts. Similar pattern of behaviors have been experienced and observed in college freshman students as well. Other studies conducted by Deky, Levy and Wells (1986) proved that depressed and under-pressure students tend to start or increase their alcohol intake. Such behavioral pattern is expected in college students not provided with clear rules along with sufficient monitoring, this leads them more prone the evils of alcoholism (Jackson, Henrickens, & Dickenson, 1997). In cases, where a relationship between parent and a child is strained or shows lesser level of cordiality, teenagers are expected to find escape in alcoholism and other drugs (Johnson & Padina, 1991).

Parents and children are expected to have a strained relationship when the parents are permissive, authoritarian or uninvolved. According to the definitions given by Baumrind (1991), a permissive parent is expected to be more prone to accepting the child's demand and show leniency and non-traditional patterns of behavior. Furthermore, they do not expect their child to display mature and responsible behavior by removing the self-regulations and fail to confront their child. Permissive may be further divided into two types: democratic parents, who, though lenient, are more conscientious, engaged, and committed to the child, and nondirective parents who don't take any interest in controlling the life of their children at all.

On the other hand, the authoritarian parent is highly directive and is expected to show no responsiveness to child's needs. Such parents demand obedience without questioning and expect their decisions to be followed religiously. Authoritarian parents also provide clear set of rules with in a highly managed environment and provide no flexibility in any case. Authoritarian parents can be divided into two types: non-authoritarian-directive, who are directive, but not intrusive or autocratic in their use of power, and authoritarian-directive, who are highly intrusive (Baumrind, 1991). An uninvolved parent is neither responsive… [END OF PREVIEW]

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"Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change."  Essaytown.com.  September 30, 2012.  Accessed June 19, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/parenting-styles-correlation-alcoholism/3373669.