Participation in Ext-Curricular Activities Affect a High Term Paper

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¶ … participation in ext-curricular activities affect a high school student's GPA, Attendance, honor roll, discipline, behavior etc.

Grade Point Averages are Higher among Students that are Participants in Extra-Curricular Activities

In a study reported in the Journal of Educational Research and written by Elisha Chambers (2002) the stated purpose of study was stated by Chambers to be in the examination of the relationship between the student's after school pursuits or "extra-curricular" activities. The beginning of the study was stated to be in the early 1990's "when educators became interested in the child in terms of overall development" stating that by the turn of the century these type of studies were discouraged. Many studies exist inclusive of findings such as one termed "The Involvement Principle" which assists in grasping yet another aspect in discovery within case study pertaining to understanding the benefits in extra-curricular activities and in establishment as fact the thoughts that enhancement provided to learning. Building knowledge upon knowledge, or the theory known well by the name of "Bloom's Taxonomy" in the statement of Benjamin Bloom concerning knowledge of prior attainment being conducive for the building of more knowledge in the brain of the individual learner. Support is found through this as well in a separate study that is in relation to the effect of music upon the childhood brain and cross-curricular learning which is stated to be scientifically based. Finally, the researcher in the present study has performed data collection and analysis are stated as well.

Grade Point Averages are Higher among Students that are Participants in Extra-Curricular Activities

I. Introduction

Context of Issue and Rationale for the study

The music teacher/researcher in this study has taught in the present school of Neligh-Oakdale for three years. The teacher scores Division 1 rating and has experienced success. The practice of that teacher is reflected within this research and the success of the music department relies on this type of critical thinking in the practice of teachers who are effectively applying their talents in education. The researcher has experiential knowledge of what has also resulted in that which appears to be evidential data that music indeed affects the student in terms of cross-curricular learning. The questions formed in the mind of the teacher/researcher has focused the research from questions and assumptions that formed over the three-year period of contemplation of the present study.

II. Research Questions:

1. Does the participation in extra-curricular activities help or hinder a students overall GPA?

2. Is there a difference in the number of absences in students who participate in extra-curricular activities vs. those who don't?

3. Are there gender related differences when comparing students GPA's which the extra-curricular activities that they are or aren't involved in?

4. What life skills can be taught by being involved in extra-curricular activities?

III. Findings of the Study

Findings of the study are that extra-curricular activities are definitely connected to higher grade point averages and this is evidenced through study based on analysis of data as well as through literature research of credible sources based on evidence in case study research in abundance. Furthermore the findings in this study show that music education is related closely to cognitive brain functioning and as well that these benefits are cross-curricular in the effects upon brain functioning in view of student learning. While sports activities tend to promote knowledge in health and well-being other activities promote skills in leadership and team work as well as other professional, business and societal skills needed in the future by the student in life skill requirements for success.

As to the differences in gender there is only a slight difference noted. In the comparison of female students vs. male students that did not participate in extra activities and were not honor roll students the group averages were as follows:

Female

Male

In the comparison of female vs. male students that did participate in extra activities but were not honor roll students the following was revealed in the group averages:

Female 89.0

This may be considered a limitation as there is only one student in this group and is not representative of an actual averaging of collective GPA's.]

Male 88.076666

Comparison among the groups of male and female students in terms of those students who were honor roll students yet were not participant in extra activities revealed the following group averages:

Female 94.0675

Male 94.281111

Finally, in the last of the groups compared the female and male students who were honor roll students with no extra activity participation revealed the following group averages:

Female 93.11

Male 95.88

This may be considered a limitation as there is only one student in this group and is not representative of an actual averaging of collective GPA's.]

IV. Literature Review

1. Two Schools-of-Thought - Extracurricular Activities

In a study reported in the Journal of Educational Research and written by Elisha Chambers (2002) the stated purpose of study was stated by Chambers to be in the examination of the relationship between the student's after school pursuits or "extra-curricular" activities. The beginning of the study was stated to be in the early 1990's "when educators became interested in the child in terms of overall development" stating that by the turn of the century these type of studies were discouraged. According to Chambers there are two schools of thought in relation to the extra-curricular issue activities. The first of these is based in the:

Zero-sum concept, in which it is hypothesized that these activities will displace academic time needed for learning. The greater amount of time spent in non-academic centered activities will decrease or subvert academic achievement by absorbing valuable academic time." (Camp, 1990; Marsh, 1992)

Chambers cites Porter (1991) who holds the view that loads are not academic in nature interfere with academic work, however the reality according to Chambers is that it is only the amount of time affected in a decrease for the individual overall and not specifically in terms of academic learning time. The second school of thought according to Chambers (2002) is: "based on the idea that these activities provide an experience that contributes to the overall development of the students." (Gerber, 1996 as cited by Chambers 2002) Chambers states that the study by research questions associated with differences in ethnic background and as to non-organized and organized academic activities. Findings of the study conducted by Chambers are:

Neither the zero-sum concept nor the commitment to school hypothesis was well supported. Academic works appear to be the pursuits most consistently related to achievement, although this varied by content domain and ethnicity. Nonacademic pursuits of the most part were not significantly related to achievement." Chambers (2002)

2. School "Connectedness" Results in Higher Levels of Psychosocial Functioning and other Healthy Behavior

In a study entitled "Differences in Behavior, Psychological Factors and Environmental Factors Associated with Participation in School Sports and Other Activities in Adolescence" which was published in the Journal of School Health (2003) it is stated as the Objective in conduction of the study in this case to make a determination as to whether or not participation in school team sports exclusively or in combination with other extracurricular activities, is associated with higher levels of psychosocial functioning and healthy behavior than participation in other extracurricular activities alone or non-participation. According to this study there is a type of bonding that takes place when students participate in extracurricular activities and results in what is referred to as "connectedness." Narayan (2003)

Stated is that such connectedness has been found to be "even more powerful than family connectedness in terms of protection against acting out behaviors in adolescence" and that "research which has been conducted on school-based interventions suggests that the relationship may be causal: what happens at school can influence students' feelings of being cared for." Narayan (2003) Findings in this study were the among male students 19.1% engaged in neither "sports" or "other activities" with 23.4% in "other activities" only, 15.1% engaged in "sports" only and 42.4% of the students engaged in both "sports" and "other activities." In the group of female students 12.6% were involved in neither with 31.6% in "other activities" and 7.3%% in "sports" only and 48.6% engaged in both activities of "sports" and "other."

The study findings include the fact that adolescents from single-parent homes were less likely to participate in either sports or other activities and were especially less likely to participate in both activities. Particularly disturbing was the finding that this study found a lower rate of participation in sports among students who were victims of either physical violence or sexual abuse and those from families with substance abuse problems. The findings of the study do seem to give weight to self-esteem indeed being a byproduct of participation in sports activities. Furthermore, the level in the participation in the school sports or other activities was targeted in the studies with a classification assigned to the students as to the specific activity(s). Narayan (2003) states that:

The four-category level of participation variable was cross… [END OF PREVIEW]

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