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Partisanship of the News MediaResearch Paper

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Partisanship of the News Media and Its Effect on the Last 25 Years of United States History

Media Impact & Partisanship

In the 21st century, there has been a particular development on the media front, and which has completely changed the outlook of media towards political factions (Merriam-Webster). The act of partisanship has been on the rise and media houses tend to share this particular emotion with each other. Partisanship refers to the emotion or feeling of a particular type, which is developed without any instigation and is carried without taking into consideration the flipside or other options. Talking about media, they often carry a particular type of thought for a particular political party, and this thought is then transferred towards the audience through their media programs. Although there have been many reforms in laws and constitutions worldwide, which describe media as a free body with a free thought, still American citizens feel that media is biased in its approach (Hernandez, 2014).

There have been many incidents of conflict in interest among various news channels and media houses regarding one particular news or incident (Goolsbee, 2006). These incidents have pointed towards the act of partisanship and have led to major media-clashes which happened in front of public eye, and which has raised questions on integrity of media. One of the examples is the situation in Iraq, when NBC's Matt Lauder termed the incident as a civil war, other sources of media, gave this situation their own version. Fox News ran news which showed "external forces" to be a part of this so called civil war, and raising the conflict bar, other sources such as The Los Angeles Times and The Christian Science Monitor, had their own versions (Goolsbee, 2006).

Apart from reporting same news from different viewpoints, there have been other incidents in news, through which media houses have promoted their own personal propaganda (Goolsbee, 2006). This propaganda is a fruit of partisanship which prevails among them and eventually motivates the masses (Goolsbee, 2006). Some of the renowned personalities, such as Frank Luntz, who is a Republican, has been part of such incidents, when he pronounced "estate tax" as "death tax" by spinning language and proving his personal partisanship, based on his personal experience. These incidents show the coronation between media houses and political wings, which work in conjunction to affect the overall political scenario (Goolsbee, 2006).

There have been many references in this regard and political factions have been conducting various researches and studies in this regard, so as to ascertain the depth of this issue (Goolsbee, 2006). Dr. Gentzkow and Dr. Shapiro have categorically detailed upon the use of spinning language and flipping of words among political factions to ascertain more stress on some issues. While Republicans used words such as "death tax," "nuclear power" and "illegal aliens" more often. Democrats on the other hand, used terms such as "minimum wages," "middles class," "oil companies" and so on (Goolsbee, 2006).

Partisanship has been prevalent throughout the media functions and this has been motivating or in other words, hijacking the thought process of all citizens (Goolsbee, 2006). Talking about newspapers in particular, it is proven that such functions are deliberate, and newspapers do select their language and grammar to influence the masses. This influence is sometimes taken in negative sense, and a detailed analysis of several newspapers has given out this figure, which is in a way very disturbing and though provoking (Goolsbee, 2006). There are various cases of partisanship, which is evident from the language used in highly coveted and reputed newspapers in U.S., and the manner in which such siding of a particular political party influences the common masses (Goolsbee, 2006).

After such incidents and reports of partisanship on part of media came out, there have been many researches and studies in this regard, which indicate some other influences on part of news houses. It would be completely insane to say that these houses are typically motivated and are completely working under a political pressure (Goolsbee, 2006). There might be reports of inclination towards one particular political faction, but rational approach suggests otherwise. A detailed study in this direction has shown that certain newspapers that were operating on a nationwide scale ran almost similar news items throughout the country (Goolsbee, 2006). In a survey with New York Times has shown that the newspaper daily had similar news and articles, using similar language, in its prints in New York and South Carolina, alike. This shows that media and news in general cannot be completely motivated by politics and to a great extent, print what their readers like to read. However, there is an ongoing battle over partisanship, which would carry on for a long period, but still there is some rationality which is prevalent among print media (Goolsbee, 2006).

There have been many speculations in terms of division and polarization which is initiated by media and news houses. Some experts have pointed out that presenters such as Rush Limbaugh and Keith Olbermann of Fox News have contributed a lot towards polarization and division of interest of the viewers (Prior, 2013). It is evident that the partisan behavior by news reporters and news channels, invokes a further partisan and polarized response from among the masses. Elections are major decisive function for any media house and there is a lot of pressure on a news house to bring out opinions and cover the campaigns (Prior, 2013). While candidates and frontrunners of elections are busy in campaigning for themselves in a polling situation, there are many news houses, which are covering the whole function and wish to cover majority of audience. While there are many claims of partisanship on part of media, there are several theoretical challenges and in way of this theory. It is not just the media or news, which provokes partisan opinions, in fact, this opinionated thought is carried by all voters and citizens, which is promoted and launched by almost every knowledge-sharing portal (Prior, 2013).

Apart from news and television media, another major function, which is playing a vital role in influencing the opinions of people, is that of social media (Miller, 2014). There have been many reports which have suggested that people form opinions and partisan thought through this media and such change happens quickly and is more effective (Miller, 2014). While there are numerous cases of partisanship on some piece of media, there are a few hypothetical difficulties and in method for this hypothesis. It is not simply the media or news, which incites partisan notions, indeed, this obstinate thought is conveyed by all voters and subjects, which is advanced and dispatched by social interaction gateway (Miller, 2014).

Even major political leaders and election contestants have understood the power of social media, and have started laying stress on coverage of this media. There is a type of media-based campaign which is carried on through Twitter and Facebook, even when there is no election or campaigning going on (Miller, 2014). This has promoted the use of this media and it has some guaranteed and affirmative results because of the affect it puts on various individuals. In several studies, it has been found that people form opinions through this media, in a more effective and reinforced manner. People are connected to a channel of friends and acquaintances and this helps them gain faith over opinions of these individuals, and influence their own opinions. Separated from news and TV media, an alternate significant capacity, which is assuming an imperative part in affecting the assessments of individuals, is that of social networking. There have been numerous reports which have proposed that individuals structure assumptions and partisan thoroughly considered this media and such change happens rapidly and is more viable. Indeed major political pioneers and race competitors have comprehended the force of online networking, and have begun laying weight on scope of this media (Miller, 2014). There is a kind of media-based fight which is carried on through Twitter and Facebook, actually when there is no decision or crusading going on. This has advanced the utilization of this media and it has some ensured and positive results in view of the influence it puts on different people. In a few studies, it has been observed that individuals structure assessments through this media, in a more compelling and fortified way. Individuals are associated with a channel of companions and acquaintances and this helps them pick up confidence over assumptions of these people, and impact their own particular feelings (Miller, 2014).

There have been many debates and researches in direction of partisanship in media and many conclusions have been drawn, which account for a fair media framework. There have been many references made throughout the world regarding the level at which polarization is carried out by various functions (Ott, 2011). According to various experts, it is known that various other factors also play a vital role in evaluating the level of polarization. Media has to play a rational role in many cases… [END OF PREVIEW]

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