Research Paper: Patients Diagnosed With TBI Cope

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[. . .] Program lasted 13 weeks. Results discovered that CBT supplemented with cognitive processing therapy seemed to be the most effective in helping patients with both post-TBI and PTSD symptoms.

Previous studies show that social and emotional support can go a long way in helping victims of various diseases. Bell et al. (2011) therefore conducted a telephone support intervention in order to assess whether that may help victims f TBI better cope with social and emotional aggravation in their routine lives. They conducted a two group, randomized controlled trial on 433. Subjects who were recruited form inpatient rehabilitation. The subjects (mean age 16) were randomized between a Scheduled Telephone Intervention (STI) group and usual care (UC) and simply usual care (UC) which was the control. Aspects that were observed were function, health/emotional status, community/work activities, and well-being and these were monitored both now and two years after injury. The STI subjects received brief training in education, problem solving, and referral, and they received calls almost every month in order to check up on their welfare. The calls, lasting a year, were frequent at first and then gradually paced apart. Measures used included the Glasgow Coma Scale, race/ethnicity, age, FIM, sex, and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) as well as individual and composite measures (FIM, DRS, community participation indicators, Glasgow Outcome Scale [Extended], Short Form-12 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, EuroQOL, and modified Perceived Quality of Life). Despite thorough research and contrary to expectations, no significant findings were discovered between the groups leading researchers to conclude that whilst telephone-based counseling was shown effective in other cases, it has not proved greater efficacy to other models of treatment in the case of TBI.

A different treatment that was employed was an anger-management program with the idea that anger management may help patients of TBI deal with their depilating bitterness that caused many of the frustrating emotional and social shortfalls. Hart et al. (2012) randomly selected 10 people who had moderate to severe, chronic TBI with significant cognitive impairment and significant levels of anger and irritability and conducted a fully manualized, 8-session, psychoeducational treatment for irritability and anger which they called anger self-management training (ASMT). The group was a single intervention pilot study with pore- and post-assessment. Two subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Scale -- Revised and Brief Anger-Aggression Questionnaire were used as well as qualitative observation and solicitation of self-report. Researchers found significant improvement on all 3 measures of self-reported anger, with large effect sizes (>1.0), and advised further investigation of this program on individuals who had trouble managing their TBI symptoms in routine life.


Seven quantitative studies were selected in order to investigate therapeutic and other interventions that could help TBI patient's progress with their lives and deal with debilitative social and emotional post-injury symptoms. CBT was found effective in three of the treatments. Telephone counseling was found to have no significant effect in aiding patients. Anger management program was found o have potential as well as aerobics exercise. Chard et al. (2011) advocated regular therapy in addition to CBT. All consisted of random selecting. Most contained only a few participants, and these therefore require larger samples. All used reliable instruments and thorough conditions in order to assess outcomes in a reliable manner. Only two were single pore-post treatment groups. All suggested further investigation.


Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560

Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.

-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.

Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,

Hart, T et al. (2012) Anger Self-Management Training for People With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Investigation Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 113 -- 122

McDonald, S., R. Tate, L. Togher, C. Bornhofen, E. Long, P. Gertler, and R. Bowen. 2008. Social skills treatment for people with severe, chronic… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Patients Diagnosed With TBI Cope.  (2012, November 9).  Retrieved May 25, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Patients Diagnosed With TBI Cope."  9 November 2012.  Web.  25 May 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Patients Diagnosed With TBI Cope."  November 9, 2012.  Accessed May 25, 2019.