Term Paper: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, a Critical

Pages: 6 (2543 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Disease  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] STIs can cause serious side effects and aid in generation of other diseases such as PID. People need to know the relevancy of PID and sexually transmitted disease. Because PID is known to cause infertility in women, public health becomes a concern. Infertility along with the diseases that come from unprotected sex (what causes the PID, and the infertility) form a complex and expensive problem in the long run.

Millions of dollars are spent on fertility drugs, MRI's, ultrasounds, and other additional tests, that can easily be replaced with inexpensive preventative measures. Preventative measures such as STI/STD screenings, pelvic examinations, and pap smears, allow medical professionals to detect early on any potential health problems. It is important for the public to realize the importance of preventative medicine. Preventative medicine in the long run helps women who develop diseases such as PID from running the risk of more serious issues such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

Patient and Family Education

Preventative measures such as IUDs for unwanted pregnancy has also been studied in regards to PID complications. In a paper written by Mohllajee, Curtis, & Peterson, they reviewed "indirect evidence from six prospective studies that examined women with insertion of a copper IUD and compared risk of PID between those with STIs at the time of insertion with those with no STIs." (Mohllajee, Curtis, & Peterson, 2006, p. xx-xx) The six studies indicated that women with chlamydial infection or gonorrhea at the time of IUD insertion were more likely to develop PID than those with no infection. Overall, "the absolute risk of PID was low for both groups (-5% for those with STIs and 0-2% for those without)." (Mohllajee, Curtis, & Peterson, 2006, p. xx-xx) Their paper suggests that even preventative measures such as IUDs which are meant for pregnancy and not STIs, are still indicating low instances of PID leading researchers to believe women who act in a preventative way towards their health are more likely to not participate in activities that will lead to adverse health complication such as unprotected sex.

Appropriate Referral to Specialty

Appropriate treatment for women who develop PID becomes a priority. Referring a patient to a specialist is often needed. In an article by Simms et al., PID is described as having a multifactorial aetiology. "Although Chlamydia trachomatis causes a substantial proportion of cases, serological evidence has associated Mycoplasma genitalium with PID." (Simms et al., 2003, p. xx-xx) Previous attempts at further investigation of PID have always been hindered by the lack of straightforward, precise diagnostic methods, but polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are presently available. "A recent Kenyan study suggested an association between M. genitalium and acute endometritis." (Simms et al., 2003, p. xx-xx)

PID is a disease that can lead to serious consequences for women who suffer from it. The risks of infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy increase when women develop PID. Research indicates STIs, particularly C. trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae are known causes of PID. Preventative measures such as STI screenings and condom use may keep women from going through a stressful and potentially devastating ordeal. It is important to not only educate women of these risks, but also educate their family and partners. Education is key in stopping the spread of PID.

Conclusion

In conclusion, PID is a costly and potentially devastating disease. Priority must be placed on patient education and practitioner guidelines. If patients and medical professionals practice simplified and accurate diagnosis and adherence guidelines, early detection of PID is possible. Limited research on what methods and strategies can improve practitioner and patient adherence to PID diagnosis and management guidelines presents a problem, but new research attempts to fix that.

Interventions that make managing PID easier and more available, such as summary guidelines and plan of treatment on-site, appear to lead to better obedience but further empirical evidence is necessary. Researchers able to find new ways to approach this problem, such as studies on analysis of PID symptoms can help develop better methods for medical professionals in the near future. Hopefully with more studies and information, PID will become a disease that is not only easily treatable, but easy to diagnose early on. Preventative medicine is the key to better health.

References

Berger, G.S., & Westrom, L. (1992). Pelvic inflammatory disease. New York: Raven Press.

Blake, D.R., Fletcher, K., Joshi, N., & Emans, S.J. (2003). Identification of Symptoms that Indicate a Pelvic Examination is Necessary to Exclude PID in Adolescent Women. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 2003(16), 25-33. doi:10.1016/S1083-3188(02)00207-3

Landers, D.V., & Sweet, R.L. (2013). Pelvic inflammatory disease. S.l.: Springer.

Liu, B., Donovan, B., Hocking, J., Knox, J., Silver, B., & Guy, R. (2012). Improving Adherence to Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Pelvic Inftammatory Disease: A Systematic Review. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2012(32510), 6.

Mirblook, F., Asgharnia, M., Forghanparast, K., & Soltani, M.A. (2011). A comparative study on ofloxacin and azithromycin in combination with metronidazole to outpatients with pelvic inflammatory disease. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 13(14), 400-402.

Mohllajee, A.P., Curtis, K.M., & Peterson, H.B. (2006). Does insertion and use of an intrauterine device increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease among women with sexually transmitted infection? A systematic review. Contraception, 2006(73), 145-153.

Simms, I., & Stephenson, J.M. (2000). Pelvic inflammatory disease epidemiology: what do we know and what do we need to know? Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2000(76), 80-87. Retrieved from http://sti.bmj.com/content/76/2/80

Simms, I., Eastick, K., Mallinson, H., Thomas, K., Gokhale, R., Hay, P., . . . Rogers, P.A. (2003). Associations between Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 8(56), 616-618. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1770020/

Smith, K.J., Cook, R.L., & Roberts, M.S. (2007). Time from Sexually Transmitted Infection Acquisition to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Development: Influence on the Cost-Effectiveness of Different Screening Intervals. Value in Health, 10(5), 358-366.

Songer, T.J., Lave, J.R., Kamlet, M.S., Frederick, S., & Ness, R.B. (2004). Preferences for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic… [END OF PREVIEW]

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