Term Paper: People's Response to Drugs

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[. . .] Using an example from a research a driver who was dosed with moderate marijuana perceived to be driving at a higher speed than the actual speed. Another issue is that the perceptions of enhanced sex under marijuana are believed only exist in temporary distortions (Galizio & Maisto, 2010).

Drugs may be the facilitating factor behind altered individual perceptions. On the other hand, the occurrence of hallucinations and illusions is not likely to be influenced than changes on other perceptions by other factors that are not related to drugs. Hallucinations including LSD promote the visual threshold in individuals arousing the central nervous system, which prompts hyper-excitation of auditory and visual events. Sounds are likely to appear louder while colors are likely to appear more saturated. Likewise, the use of alcohol results into a delirious condition, involving special temporary distortions and visual hallucinations. Drugs are likely to produce significant changes in atomic parts of the sensory organs. For instance, various sedative impacts are likely to generate pigmentary degeneration in the retina. Similarly, there are possibilities of occasional blindness. Other drugs including anti-depressants have produced glaucoma in susceptible persons (Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, 2012).

People using drugs are likely to experience interferences in their perceptions towards their abilities. Accumulating studies reveal that students using amphetamine tend to overrate their individual capacity in making sound judgments and solving mathematical problems. Similarly, soldiers using amphetamine have reported to overestimate their job performance in specific monotonous routine tasks. This important implication of using drugs is that it alters individual behaviors from the anticipated to the unexpected unless users compensate for the impacts as sophisticated addicts of alcohol and marijuana. The degree of altered perception and behavior relates to the type of addiction affecting the changes. This can range from late appointments to undertaking hazardous tasks in a foolish manner (Melton, 2007).


Without question, dependence on alcohol is the most serious drug addiction problem in the world today. Alcohol users have outnumbered users of other drugs globally. Potential reinforcement of alcohol and its possibility of disrupting behavior are high. Drug use is a pervasive behavior across the overall population, moreover, it is ever readily available thus facilitating the development of enormous dependence levels among vulnerable generations. Studies rate that the prevalence of alcohol dependence has hit roughly 12% and half of the alcohol using population has reported notable decrement in their social functioning (Newcomb & Bentler, 2008).

While the number of non-dependants and abstainers continue to increase, the use of alcohol has indicated to generate significant social costs. Researchers have accentuated the risk associated with alcohol use by the pervasive sentiment that appears to exclude the use of alcohol from the category of drugs. Therefore, it has been eliminated from the idea of drug abuse, as well as the social problems associated with the concept of drug abuse. A recent national survey on alcohol shows that only 40% of the adults and 60% of the youth population consider alcohol as a drug. According to the survey, an individual who uses alcohol twice in a day are considered are drug abusers. Similarly, the findings of the survey reveal that only 8% of the public thinks that alcoholism is a crucial social problem compared to other drugs (Hill & Hill, 2009).


Heroin is categorized as a reinforcer in its current context demonstrating selective high risks, vulnerable segments, and populations with minimal better lifestyles. The risks associated with compulsive administration of heroin have been exacerbated by the rate of intravenous use accompanied by the rapid tolerance development. Continued dependence on heroin through different phases is rapid. Although the rate of adults using the drug is lower than with other drugs, the dependence prevalence in populations exposed appears to be high. Surveys indicate that 50% of persons who make first attempt at using heroin end up being dependents (Abramson & Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2008).

Dependence on heroin is disproportionately high across most vulnerable populations: male youths from urban centers of the nation. Because dependence is likely to take shape if in the early phases of adulthood, economic and social integration is inhibited at the most critical period, to the detriment of social groups and the larger society. Unfortunately, the current social policies appear to exacerbate this cost even worse. Because enormous pressures have characterized the current legal and social medical responses, a disproportionate level of behavioral disruption and disorganization accompanies the dependence on heroin (Hales, 2006).


When amphetamines are administered intravenously, they potentially lead to high reinforcement. Consequently, it can lead to strong psychological dependence among individuals, in spite the fact that the drug does not produce physical dependence. The use of amphetamines has a potential social cost; continued dependence on this drug precipitates to unbearable and unpleasant hyper-excitability embedded in psychotic manifestations. This is the underlying reason for rarely sustained compulsive chronic usage (Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, 2012). However, this should not be a suggestion that the compulsive amphetamine use cannot produce significant problems. Surveys show that thousands of adolescent, to be precise, the youth are turning to the readily available amphetamines. This has created enormous problems in the reconstruction of the society. The increased dependence and use of amphetamines calls for the establishment of stringent legal control measures and psychiatric institutions. Fortunately, measures to address this problem have been facilitated by the national purpose and cultural homogeneity (Wilson & Kolander, 2011).

In the U.S., compulsive amphetamine use has never occurred among the highly vulnerable populations of youth in the middle century. This phenomenon has only exaggerated over time. On the contrary, mushrooming evidence shows that a huge percentage of adults from the middle class, especially women, are developing chronic patterns of administering low doses of stimulants. Although advanced prescription practices have changed this phenomenon, most dependants on these drugs are under the context of systems of medical distribution. Contrary to other drugs, medical indications associated with the use of amphetamines, is highly limited (Melton, 2007).


Among all the existing psychoactive substances, cocaine were found to be the leading reinforced by evidence from researches carried out in the laboratory. Although both dependence and physical do not develop, the possible social cost of cocaine is higher as compared to amphetamines. The prevalence and use of chronic is still at a lower level although it is increasing. The normal mechanisms used for identifying the location of the substance are very much useful. Cocaine is also very attractive to populations that seem helpless to heroin. The planning of prudent policy mandates that the behavior of using cocaine should be under strict evaluation and an improvement to be made in the behavioral concomitants and insufficient database (Hill & Hill, 2009).


The behavior of substance abuse come fully packed with many complications to the behavior of man whether directly or indirectly. Drugs can affect the system governing perception and therefore man might change his view on the environment. They also have an impact on memory and they make one not aware of the consequences of the drugs. Drugs also, can interfere with one's state of mind and therefore cause them not to see problems in the environment and correcting them. Drugs interfere with the system of psychomotor, which leads to man's poor ability to look after the environment (Galicia & Maisto, 2010).


If vulnerable populations are able to detect addiction in its early stages and seek treatment, it is a significant step in struggling with its development. With the level of adolescent understanding, we may not expect them to have knowledge of the vast impact of the disease. We should take all possible measures to prevent the disease and if need be, to cure it while there is still potential for recovery.


Abramson, M.A., & Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences (U.S.). (2008). The funding of social knowledge production and application: A survey of Federal agencies. Washington: National Academy of Sciences.

Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Psychology. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.

Galizio, M., & Maisto, S.A. (2010). Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors. New York: Plenum Press.

Hales, D.R. (2006). Invitation to wellness: Making healthy choices. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth.

Hanson, G., Venturelli, P.J., & Fleckenstein, A.E. (2012). Drugs and society. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Hill, G., & Hill, G. (2009). A Level psychology through diagrams. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Melton, G.B. (2007). Psychological evaluations for the courts: A Handbook For Mental Health Professionals And. New York: Guilford.

Newcomb, M.D., & Bentler, P.M. (2008). Consequences of adolescent drug use: Impact on the lives… [END OF PREVIEW]

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