Term Paper: Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa

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[. . .] It is estimated that there are now 1.5 million hectares of remaining primary forest and of this 400,000 hectares are not in primary protected area and are thus being used for producing timber. It is also estimated that deforestation rates had been decreasing from 50,000 hectares a year in 1980s to 17,000 hectares a year in 1990s. In 1998, the Ministry of Environment and Energy also made a declaration that the deforestation had stopped. This was made with the assumption that secondary forests were being regenerated naturally. The forests of Costa Rica had been killed by many enemies like large-scale commercial farmers, agribusiness and ranch owners. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

The Government also contributed to this deforestation by the subsidies to increase the production of cotton, sugar and meat -- mainly for export. Farmers were also shifted on to heavily forested parcels of land through the agrarian reform agency. Another practice has been to certain logging practices like taking of the high grade of timber which reduces the value of the balance forest. There has also been legal and illegal removal of timber for the domestic market. The consciousness about the harmful effects of removal of forests has been coming up since 1950. The main focus had been on the preservation of the diverse flora, fauna and watersheds of the country, as also on the stoppage of soil erosion. First this was sought to be achieved through control of timber production and habitat preservation. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

Another important element in the area of preservation of ecology in Costa Rica was the system of National parks, and these were created by the original environmentalists. They were a group of people who had a common knowledge rooted in a scientific vision, a common background and a lot of shared experiences which had come to them from the University days. They were a very important force in convincing the successive presidents that the creation of national parks was the best possible method to stop deforestation, and thus protection of the environment. They often acted like a common group and cut across all party lines to ensure environmental protection. They have succeeded in putting Costa Rica among the top nations in the bio-diversity movement in the entire world of developing nations. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

Their influence can also be seen in the fact that they have succeeded in getting environmental education in the curricula in the country. This had a lot of effect in the country, but not only were the parks to be managed, but also the environment was to be used wisely, and that effort was to exist all over the country. This was not easy to achieve and this can be seen in the fact that the rates of deforestation continued to be high in the 1980s. This also resulted from the initial policy in Costa Rica of unrestrained land use and its changes. The controlling ministry then had a very narrow focus. At that time, the country itself was in the process of stabilizing its own economic position, and for this purpose it was a lot dependent on international funding. These different international organizations championed some pilot projects as being sustainable in the long-term. These projects were in the areas of community forestry and reforestation for timber and fuel wood. These projects also tried to provide resources for wildlife and protected area management. The dependence on foreign aided projects also trained up a lot of Costa Ricans in the concepts, techniques and administration of community forestry and in reforestation. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

These projects also helped solve the environmental and socio-economic problems in the different regions of Costa Rica that had suffered a lot due to the drop in value of the markets of cotton, sugar, beef, and banana. In some areas of Costa Rica, this was very important. At the same time, this led to a situation in which the different donors almost split up the country among themselves. The major donors were all from Europe and the United States. Most of the donors had projects for a limited time, and when the project ended, the country itself faced very serious problems. The proposals were submitted by the Costa Rican groups, but the funding came from the foreign partners. When the priorities of the foreign partners changed, the projects were in trouble. Most of the experiments did not become self sustaining and gradually disappeared when the official project period, supported by the international donor ended. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

In the meantime, the National Assembly continued its deliberations on the laws, and the most important of them was the Environmental Services Act. These were subjects of enormous debates on policy. The purpose of these Acts was to legalize and institutionalize the system of funding from the Government for the sustainable development of forests. This was sought to be done through payments for environmental services. This has been done, and most of it has gone to the large organizations in the field. The peasants earlier had state support from the government agencies and funds to support agro-forestry and small scale native species reforestation. This has happened due to the downgrading of the Department of Peasant Development to a small program within the MINAE, from a full fledged government agency. This has removed the organization built on the ideals of community forestry to an unimportant position, and also lost it support from the government. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

The funds for community forestry have ended and what is now available is the system for the payment for environmental services. This system favors the large landholders. The project that we have in mind is a concept of multiple uses of the forest, and emphasizes the use of forests for a lot of uses beside the extraction of timber. We would show that the plan for sustainable development of forest areas and the value of the project is not based on timber extraction. The plan is based on the sustainable development of the area without using the land as a timber stand. This is also different from the traditional view of combining forestry with small scale agriculture, husbandry, growing honeybees, ornamental plants, or growing cash crops in the shade provided by the trees. This is a concept that will be tried out in a totally new concept. (Lessons on sustainable development from Costa Rica's forests)

Socio-cultural Forces:

In Costa Rica, the businesses are of different types; general partnership or razon social, limited partnership or compania, limited liability company or sociedad de responsabilidad limitada, and corporation or sociedad anonima. Of these different types, the sociedad anonima or SA is the most popular form, and is somewhat similar to the Inc. In the United States. The holders of SA types of companies have the right and the obligation to carry out corporate business in Costa Rica. The entire process of setting up a company is legal, like in any other country, and it is better to seek the assistance of a commercial attorney. A qualified, competent attorney can be recommended by commercial sections of the embassies and consulates. Failing this, one can look in the Yellow Pages of the telephone books under the heading "Abogados." One may also seek the assistance of persons who have gone through this route before. Anyway, it is advisable to appoint a person who has experience with the Costa Rican legal system. The system in Costa Rica is different from certain other Latin American countries where it is essential to have a partner from the local country. (Business in Costa Rica)

The people establishing the company have their own rights and one must not feel pressurized to have a native Costa Rican as a partner, but in the case of the industry that we are talking about, it may be better to have one. After, there will be a lot of Costa Rican employees, and one must be able to understand and control them. To start a SA type of company, there must be at least two stock holders mentioned in the application, and three officers of the company. The required three officers of the company are the President, Secretary and Treasurer. There names have to be mentioned. Another officer who has to be named is the fiscal, and he is really the corporate controller. Another person to be named is the Resident Agent and he is the person responsible for the entire judicial and administrative functions of the company throughout the life of the company. He has to be a resident of Costa Rica, but not compulsorily an attorney. (Business in Costa Rica)

It is also important to choose a company name, and the name has to be in Spanish and not similar to any name that is already being used. This aspect has to be very carefully… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa.  (2004, February 23).  Retrieved June 17, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/pepperidge-farm-product-costa/8773772

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"Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa."  Essaytown.com.  February 23, 2004.  Accessed June 17, 2019.
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