Perceptions of Elementary Teachers in Tennessee Schools in Regard to Preferred Shared Decision-Making Roles Literature Review

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Perceptions of Elementary Teachers in Tennessee Schools in Regard to Preferred Shared Decision Making Roles

Negative Historical Findings of Top-Down Leadership Style

Some of the greatest things that have ever been accomplished have been the product of a group of people considering, accepting and believing in a fact when everyone else saw myth, deceits and dissent. Many people, alteration programs and leadership molds have gripped the ground-breaking power of the combined over the execution of personal power by a leading few. This begs the question, in the realm of education of whether leadership is really the driving force, or simply an explanation for everything that is wrong (the Problems of Top-Down Leadership, 2011).

It has been seen that most associations are far more contented with the engagement, discharge or encouragement of any one person as a gauge of ensuing performance than the far more multifaceted, unsure and opaque examination of the communal, cultural and faction dynamics within an association and their capacity to move forward or hinder associational performance. Education is a culture that uses easy labels, and difficulty is thus seen as abomination. Very often, the only time that staff are seen as having persuasion on an organization's achievement is when communally grouped by way of a union (the Problems of Top-Down Leadership, 2011).

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The educational literature shows that there is an extensively shared idea that participative leadership has a great advantage over the divergent style of directive leadership in executive and team success. In a study done Somech (2005), the comparative consequence of a directive leadership approach as compared with a participative leadership advance on school-staff teams' motivational systems and success was examined.

Literature Review on Perceptions of Elementary Teachers in Tennessee Schools in Regard to Preferred Shared Decision-Making Roles Assignment

The results showed that a positive association between directive leadership and executive dedication, as well as a positive association between directive leadership and school-staff team in-role performance. Additionally, executive dedication served as a go-between in the directive leadership-performance relationship. In regards to participative leadership, the results showed a positive relation between participative leadership and teachers' empowerment, and a positive relation between participative leadership and school-staff team originality, and empowerment served as an intermediary in the participative leadership-innovation association (Somech, 2005).

In a study done by Weathers, (2011), the discourse over the significance of schools developing a professional community of teachers who allocate universal values, assist in support of these values, and a have sense of shared responsibility as a means of enhancing student achievement is looked at. Within the related literature on teacher professionalization, there is an all-inclusive belief that top-down management, principles, and responsibility policies are adversative to a teacher community.

There are generally two chief expectations that are often placed on members of a community, shared responsibility and reciprocity. Members are expected to hold universal attitudes, go by community principles, and to re-enforce the community limits. Even though these community limits are liquid to some amount, they are made up of the community's culture of common attitudes, principles, standards, and implications. Members may be disciplined or estranged for violating community standards. It is other members' duty to impose these norms. The need to hold others responsible to community values are tied to an individual's uniqueness, and connected to a common distinctiveness and organizational or community history (Weathers, 2011).

What has Lead to the Problem

It has been shown that utilizing a top-down leadership style is not very effective in getting things done within an educational environment. When this type of leadership style in used there is a belief that principles and responsibility rules are adversative to the teacher community. Members of a community are expected to have common attitudes, go by community standards, and to uphold the community boundaries. In a top-down leadership situation the expectations are set by those at the top and are disseminated down for all other to follow. This does not allow for any room for anyone who is not at the top to contribute any thought to what takes place.

History has shown that two heads are often better than one. In some of the most innovative and impressive things that have been accomplished over time it can be seen that groups of people are often responsible over a single individual. In order for educational communities to be successful they must be the best effort of everyone involved and not just those at the top. A good educational environment should be a collective effort and thus everyone should be able to add to the planning and carrying out of the educational system.

The educational literature reveals the extensively shared conviction that participative leadership has an overwhelming benefit over the contrasting style of directive leadership in executive and team success. Standards and policies should be decided upon by everyone who is involved and not by just a select few at the top. This leads to everyone's buy in and thus is more successful in the end because everyone feels as if they have a stake in the game and are more willing to work hard to make it work. This leads to the idea that in order to have an efficient system of in regards to shared decision making environments within a school community, the theory of distributed leadership should be applied

Educational Leadership Continuum (authoritative to democratic)

Leadership has frequently been portrayed as a continuum of two intense styles, autocratic and democratic. The authoritative style is the most effectual in every facet of an organization's environment. An authoritative leader offers an apparent idea that inspires the workers to be imaginative in their pursuit of the organization's mission while offering a supportive arrangement. On the other hand, an authoritative leader must oppose the appeal to be domineering, particularly in the presence of experts and peers (Breen, n.d.).

The affiliative style, which is in the middle of the continuum, is founded upon a considerate and fostering advance, which works well in combination with the authoritative approach. Affiliative leaders try to build up conviction and generate accord through the utilization of continuous affirmative feedback. These features permit for the expansion of ties, collaboration, and communication that are desirable when new teams are formed or when stress exists within a present group. The triumphant accomplishment of this approach significantly depends upon the progress level of the staff member (Breen, n.d.).

Comparable to the affiliative style, the democratic style necessitates highly developed and capable members to react suitably to the open-ended questions and call for opinions. A leader utilizes this approach in order to increase buy-in and erect confidence among employees and peers. Through the utilization of the democratic style the leader asks workers to partake in the decision-making and in doing so advances admiration and obligation on the part of the worker. Clearly, the utilization of this approach is inadequate in times of disaster when members tend to necessitate direction more than support from their leader. On the other hand, this approach may be supportive to direct the leader and create a new idea for an association (Breen, n.d.).

School-Based Decision-Making is in the Middle of the Continuum

School-based decision making gives teachers at the school level direct control of the key variables that are in the learning environment. It allows for them to control the characteristics of the staff, the use of teacher and student time, classroom management techniques, assignment of students, curriculum and learning materials, and the use of equipment and space. This approach falls in the middle of the educational learning continuum because it represents an affiliative leadership style. These leaders try to develop confidence and generate accord through the advance of bonds, teamwork, and communication. This approach allows for teachers to work together in groups in order to make the best use of the resources that they have and thus create the most successful learning environment that they can.

Teacher Efficacy and the Education Learning Continuum

Teacher efficacy or a teachers' self-belief in their capability to encourage students' learn-ing fits into the continuum in the middle. Teachers who have a stron-ger notion of efficacy:

Often display greater heights of plan-ning and organization

Are increasingly open to novel thoughts and are more eager to try new techniques to better meet the requirements of their students

Are more determined and flexible when things do not go according to plan

Are less critical of students when they make mistakes

Are less liable to refer a difficult stu-dent to special education (Protheroe, 2008).

Some researchers have taken the notion of teacher efficacy to another level and come up with a harmonizing con-struct called collective teacher efficacy. Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy (2000) define this as "the perceptions of teachers in a school that the efforts of the faculty as a whole will have a positive effect on stu-dents," with the faculty in general agree-ing that "teachers in this school can get through to the most difficult students." Under this analysis teach-ers' shared attitudes form the normative atmosphere of schools and are a significant feature of the culture of the school (Protheroe, 2008).

Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy (2000) suggest that one way for… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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