Personality and Personality Disorders Causal Research Paper

Pages: 9 (2691 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 3  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Psychology

He has a weak and low self-esteem and is unable to perceive other people's perspectives. An antisocial personality violates the rights of others without remorse yet can be charming, intelligent or cruel. The borderline personality is impulsive, habitually angry, unstable, and unpredictable. He fails to complete the process of identity formation. The avoidant personality desires attention but is lonely. He has insufficient social skills or social phobia. He is often confused with the schizoid. The dependent personality is extremely dependent on others. He panics when alone and lacks self-confidence. He lets others do the decisions for him. And the obsessive-compulsive personality is too concerned with rules, order and control He lacks warmth and is over-conscientious. He lacks the true obsessions or compulsions of the obsessive-compulsive personality. He is rigid and a perfectionist (PubMed Health).

Causal Factors of Personality Disorders

These are biological and psychosocial factors (Kopeikin, 2000). Biological factors predispose a person to particular disorders. These may be inherited constitutional predispositions, which interact with the environment. Childhood interactions may trigger the development of psychosocial factors, such as workload, work deadline or the lack of control of work (Kopeikin).

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The antisocial personality and psychopathy are often assumed to be identical (Kopeikin, 2000). Both suffer from poor or inadequate conscience development. They both act out their tensions yet appear sincere. They are irresponsible and impulsive, take what they want and possess the ability to impress as well as exploit others. They are liars who understand and use the weaknesses of others. They reject authority and are unable to maintain stable relationships. Yet they win friends easily. They can also be violent towards friends and their own family. They display repetitive predatory behavior (Kopeikin).

Criteria that Distinguish Other Psychiatric Disorders from Personality Disorder

Research Paper on Personality and Personality Disorders Causal Assignment

These are biological factors, genetic influence (Kopeikin, 2000). The psychopath or antisocial personality is deficient in emotional responsiveness or conditioning. He does not learn from punishment. He seeks stimulation and resents the delay of gratification. He suffers from cognitive functioning. Early parental loss, severe parental rejection, the lack of parental affection and consistency in dispensing reward and punishment are the causal factors behind psychopathy as distinguished from personality disorder (Kopeikin).

Approaches to the Assessment and Identification of Personality Disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorder or DSM-V Research Planning Work Groups sought alternative dimensional representations in response to reports of dissatisfaction over the existing categorical classification system for personality development (Pukrop, 2008). Suggested are four different strategies, namely dimensional representations of existing categories, dimensional reorganization of diagnostic criteria, integration of personality disorders with dimensional models of general personality structure, and identification of spectra of dysfunction, cutting across personality, axis I and axis II disorders (Pukrop).

Up for discussion with these suggested models are two relevant aspects (Pukrop, 2008). The first will be the issue of stability and changeability of personality and, thus, the question of childhood and adolescent antecedents. And the second will be the search for neuro-scientific foundations of personality disorder traits, which can be integrated by an endophenotypic approach. These matters require a heuristic framework according to the vision of an etiologically-based classification system for personality disorders and maybe also for other psychiatric syndromes (Pukrop).

The diagnostic criteria for the 5th edition of the DSM of Mental Disorders require substantial rework on the current assessment and identification of personality disorders (Connors, 2011). Changes in the types of disorder need to be integrated into the pathological personality trains. They also integrate with the levels of impairment of "personality functioning," The presentation of personality disorders from their currently rigid categories to the new model will have to look very different. The goal is to make it most useful to clinicians and beneficial to patients. The Manual contains the standard classification of disorders used by mental health and other health professionals for their diagnostic and research needs and other purposes. DSM-V will contain the latest scientific interpretation of the etiology, characteristics and relationships of mental disorders. It will be published next year as the culmination of more than a decade's rigorous labor among hundreds of experts in the U.S. And abroad (Connors).

The proposed criteria for personality disorders will be the derived from field trial evaluations in actual clinical settings throughout the country (Connors, 2011). Public comments are also encouraged and entertained. The Work Group recommends that the 10 categories be reduced to 6 specific personality disorder types. These are antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive/compulsive and schizotypal. A diagnosis within these classifications must first meet several conditions. A person must be significantly impaired in two areas of personality function, namely self and interpersonal. Self refers to the patient's view of himself and their life goals. Interpersonal refers to the person's understanding of other people's perspectives and form close relationships. Evaluation scale is from mild to extreme. The work group also wants the pathological personality traits to be present in at least one of 5 broad areas, whether the person is antagonistic vs. able to get along with others or impulsive as against capable of thinking of possible consequences of his action. Work group chair and psychiatry professor Andrew Skodol said that the major innovation is the recognized importance of personality function and personality traits. Personality pathology is now seen as a matter of degree (Connors).

The work group's recommendations draw from the shortcomings of the current criteria, discovered by a decade's longitudinal studies and other clinical research (Connors, 2011). Behavior can be intermittent and even change in time. The proposed criteria may block an accurate diagnosis and treatment. In the meantime, impairments in personality functioning and pathological personality traits tend to stabilize over time and remain consistent, whatever the circumstances. The proposed criteria require both stability and consistency (Connors). #


Connors, E. (2011).DSM-5 revisions for personality disorders reflect major change.

News Release # 11036. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved on April 30, 2012


IGNOU (2012). Factors influencing development of personality. Unit 4. eGyankosh:

Indira Gandhi National Open University. Retrieved on April 25, 2012 from

Kopeikin, H.S. (2000). Personality disorders. Philosophy 103 Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences: University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved on April 25, 2012 from http://www.psych.ucsb.ed/~kopeikin/103lec7.htm

Murie, J. (2010). Knowing me, knowing you: a personality and peer appraisal. The British Journal of General Practice: the Royal College of General Practitioners.

Retrieved on April 29, 2012 from

PubMed Health (2010). Personality disorders. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Retrieved on April 30, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih/gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001935

Pukrop, R. (2008). Toward DSM-V: new approaches for the classification of personality disorder. 57 (8-9) Prax Kinder Psychology Kinder Psychiatry: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from

Steele, A.L. And Young. S. (2011). A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors. 48 (1) Journal of Music Therapy: Ohio University.

Retrieved on April 29, 2012 from

Zardouz, R. et al. (2011). Personality types of otolaryngology resident applicants as described by Myers-Briggs type indicator. 144 (5) Otolaryngology Head and Neck

Surgery: University of California, Irvine. Retrieved on April 29, 2012 from [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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